The fundamentals of the Turkish Flag were laid down by Turkish Flag Law No. 2994 of May 29, 1936. Turkish Flag Regulation No. 2/7175 dated July 28, 1937, and Supplementary Regulation No. 11604/2 dated July 29, 1939, were enacted to describe how the flag law would be implemented. The Turkish Flag Law No. 2893 dated September 22, 1983, and Published in the Official Gazette on September 24, 1983, was promulgated six months after its publication. According to Article 9 oof Law No. 2893, a statute including the fundamentals of the implementation was also published.
The lands of Turkey are located at a point where the three continents making up the old world. Asia, Africa and Europe are closest to each other, and straddle the point where Europe and Asia meet. Geographically, the country is located in the northern half of the hemisphere at a point that is about halfway between the equator and the north pole, at a longitude oof 36 degrees N to 42 degrees N and a latitude of 26 degrees E to 45 degrees E. Turkey is roughly rectangular in shape and is 1,660 kilometers wide.
Because of its geographical location the mainland of Anatolia has aalways found favour throughout history, and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. It has also been prominent as a centre of commerce because of its land connections to three continents and the sea surrounding it on three sides.
The land borders of Turkey are 2,573 kilometres in total, and coastlines (including islands) are another 8,333 kilometres, Turkey has two European and six Asian countries for neighbours along its land borders.
The land border to the northeast with the commonwealth of Independent States is 610 kilometres long; that with Iran, 454 kilometres long, and that with Iraq 331 kilometres long. In the south is the 877 kilometre-long border with Syria, which took its present form in 1939, when the RRepublic of Hatay joined Turkey. Turkey’s borders on the European continent consist of a 212-kilometre frontier with Greece and a 269-kilometre border with Bulgaria.
Turkey is generally divided into seven regions: the Black Sea region, the Marmara region, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, the East and Southeast Anatolia regions. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a narrow but long belt. The land of this region is approximately 1/6 of Turkey’s total land area. <
The Marmara region covers the area encircling the Sea of Marmara, includes the entire European part of Turkey, as well as the northwest of the Anatolian plain. Whilst the region is the smallest of the regions of Turkey after the Southeast Anatolia region, it has the highest population density of all the regions.
The most important peak in the region is Uludag (2,543 metres), at the same time it is a major winter sports and tourist centre. In the Anatolian part of the region there are fertile plains running from east to west.
The Aegean region extends from the Aegean coast to the inner parts of western Anatolia. There are significant differences between the coastal areas and those inland, in terms of both geographical features and economic and social aspects.
In general, the mountains in the region fall perpendicularly into the sea. and the plains run from east to west. The plains through which Gediz, Kücük Menderes and Bakircay rivers flow carry the same names as these rivers.
In the Mediterranean region, located in the south of Turkey, the western and central Taurus Mountains suddenly rise up behind the coastline. The Amanos mountain range is also in the area.
The CCentral Anatolian region is exactly in the middle of Turkey and gives the appearance of being less mountainous compared with the other regions. The main peaks of the region are Karadag, Karacadag, Hasandag and Erciyes (3.917 metres).
The Eastern Anatolia region is Turkey’s largest and highest region. About three fourths of it is at an altitude of 1,500-2,000 metres. Eastern Anatolia is composed of individual mountains as well as of whole mountain ranges, with vast plateaus and plains. The mountains: There are numerous inactive volcanoes in the region, including Nemrut, Suphan, Tendurek and Turkey’s highest peak, Mount Agri (Ararat), which is 5,165 metres high.
At the same time, several plains extended along the course of the River Murat, a tributary of the Firat (Euphrates). These are the plains of Malazgirt, Mus, Capakcur, Uluova and Malatya.
The Southeast Anatolia region is notable for the uniformity of its landscape, although the eastern part of the region is comparatively more uneven than its western areas.
Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides, by the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean in the south and the Aegean Sea in the west. In the northwest there is also an important internal sea, the SSea of Marmara, between the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, important waterways that connect the Black Sea with the rest of the world.
Because the mountains in the Black Sea region run parallel to the coastline, the coasts are fairly smooth, without too many indentations or projections. The length of the Black Sea coastline in Turkey is 1,595 kilometres, and the salinity of the sea is 17%. The Mediterranean coastline runs for 1,577 kilometres and here too the mountain ranges are parallel to the coastline.
The salinity level of the Mediterranean is about double that of the Black Sea.
Although the Aegean coastline is a continuation of the Mediterranean coast, it is quite irregular because the mountains in the area fall perpendicularly into the Aegean Sea. As a result, the length of the Aegean Sea coast is over 2,800 kilometres. The coastline faces out to many islands.
The Marmara Sea is located totally within national boundaries and occupies an area of 11,350 square kilometres. The coastline of the Marmara Sea is over 1,000 kilometres long; it is connected to the Black Sea by the Bosphorus and with the Mediterranean by the Dardanelles.
Most of the
rivers of Turkey flow into the seas surrounding the country. The Firat (Euphrates) and Dicle (Tigris) join together in Iraq and flow into the Persian Gulf. Turkey’s longest rivers, the Kizilirmak, Yesilirmak and Sakarya, flow into the Black Sea. The Susurluk, Biga and Gonen pour into the Sea of Marmara, the Gediz, Kucuk Menderes, Buyuk Menderes and Meric into the Aegean, and the Seyhan, Ceyhan and Goksu into the Mediterranean .
In terms of numbers of lakes, the Eastern Anatolian rregion is the richest. It contains Turkey’s largest, Lake Van (3.713 square kilometres), and the lakes of Ercek, Cildir and Hazar. There are also many lakes in the Taurus mountains area: the Beysehir and Egirdir lakes, and the lakes that contain bitter waters like the Burdur and Acigoller lakes, for example. Around the Sea of Marmara are located the lakes of Sapanca, Iznik, Ulubat, Manyas, Terkos, Kucukcekmece and Buyukcekmece. In Central Anatoia is the second largest lake in Turkey: Tuzgolu: TThe waters of this lake are shallow and very salty. The lakes of Aksehir and Eber are also located in this region.
As a result of the construction of dams during the past thirty years, several large dam lakes have ccome into existence. Together with the Atatürk Dam lake which started to collect water in January 1990, the following are good examples: Keban, Karakaya, Altinkaya, Adiguzel, Kilickaya, Karacaoren, Menzelet, Kapulukaya, Hirfanli, Sariyar and Demirkopru.
Although Turkey is situated in a geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape , and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, results in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.
Religion & Securalism
98% of the Turkish population is Moslem. However, everyone in Turkey has freedom oof religion and belief. No one can be forced to participate in religious ceremonies or rites against their will and no blame can be attached to anyone because of their beliefs.
The first phases in the introduction of secularism were the abolition of the Caliphate and the Ministry of the Sheria and Pious Foundations on March 4, 1924, followed by the introduction of separate educational and judicial systems, the hat reform, the closure of dervish retreats and rligious sects, the aacceptance of a Sunday weekend holiday rather than the Moslem Friday and the adoption of the western calendar, and finally the adoption of the principle of secularism in the Constitution of February 5, 1937.
In secular Turkey all religious affairs are carried out by a central government organization affiliated to the Prime Ministry, namely the Department of Religious Affairs, established in 1924. The function of this organization is to carry out tasks related to the beliefs, divine services and moral principles of Islam, and to enlighten citizens on religious matters.
Business & Economy
In recent years economic and commercial relations between Turkey and the United States developed into a mutually beneficial partnership. The importance of Turkey vis-à-vis the United States has been steadily increasing not only as a lucrative market for US exports, but also as a reliable prospective partner for joint projects and investments in Turkey and in third countries.
The U.S. Commerce Department designated Turkey as one of the world’s ten “Big Emerging Markets.” In 1999 Turkey was included in the newly established G-20 group along with other major dynamic emerging economies. Turkey is a full member of the EU Customs Union since 1996. The EU formally designated Turkey as aa candidate for full membership in its Helsinki Summit in December 1999. Currently, the Government of Turkey is engaged in harmonizing its legislation and institutional basis to match EU standards and requirements.
Both sides remain committed to further expanding and diversifying the scope and content of their economic and commercial relations. The Government of the United States expresses strong support and commitment to the implementation of the strategic Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, which will be an important component of the Euro-Asian energy transportation network in the 21st century. Turkey and the United States are exploring the possibility of creating “Qualified Industrial Zones”inTurkey with special investment and trade incentives to expand commercial relations between the two countries.
The Turkish Government is implementing an ambitious structural reform and economic stabilization program with the support of international financial institutions including a stand-by agreement with the IMF. The Turkish Grand National Assembly approved numerous legislative changes, paving the way towards broader integration of the Turkish economy with the global economy.
Art & Culture
Among the prominent statesmen of the 20th century, few articulated the supreme importance of culture as did Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Turkish Republic, who stated: „Culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic.“ His vview of culture encompassed the nation’s creative legacy as well as the best values of world civilization. It stressed personal and universal humanism. „Culture,“ he said, “ is a basic element in being a person worthy of humanity,“ and described Turkey’s ideological thrust as „a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.“
To create the best synthesis, Atatürk underlined the need for the utilization of all viable elements in the national heritage, including the ancient indigenous cultures, and the arts and techniques of the entire world civilization, past and present. He gave impetus to the study of earlier civilizations of Anatolia — including Hittite, Phrygian, Lydian and others. Pre-Islamic culture of theTurks became the subject of extensive research which proved that, long before the Seljuk and Ottoman Empires, the Turks had already created a civilization of their own. Atatürk also stressed the folk arts and folklore of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity.
The development of painting, sculpture and the decorative arts had been arrested by Ottoman officials, who claimed the depiction of the human form was idolatry, but these arts flourished during Atatürk’s presidency. Many museums were opened and architecture gained
new vigor. Classical Western music, opera and ballet, as well as theater took impressive strides.Several hundred „People’s Houses“ and „People’s Rooms“ all over Turkey gave local people and youngsters a wide variety of artistic activities, sports and cultural affairs. Book and magazine publication enjoyed a boom. The Film industry started to grow. In all walks of cultural life, Atatürk’s inspiration created an upsurge.
Atatürk’s Turkey is living proof of this ideal — a country rich in its own national culture, oopen to the heritage of world civilization and at home in the endowments of the modern technological age.
The Turks produced masterpieces of architecture during the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. The monumental buildings created by Turkish architects since the eleventh century have a distinguished place in the heritage of world architecture. The Selimiye and the Suleymaniye Mosques built by Mimar (Architect) Sinan, who is the symbol of Ottoman architecture, are masterworks reflecting the degree of maturity which the Ottoman architecture hhad reached in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in dealing with space and mass compositions. In fact, classical Ottoman style puts forth universal leaps and values.
It is possible to see the most beautiful examplesof the white colored Mediterranean architecture aalong the coastal regions in Turkey.
The Early Republic Period Turkish architecture which was dominated by the First National Architectural Move- ment until 1930, developed as a continuation of Ottoman architecture. Architects of this period erected public buildings to serve the needs of the major Anatolian cities in the wake of the Turkish War of Independence. These architects who seem to have borrowed certain elements of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture, and who were led by Kemaleddin Bey and Vedat Tek, assigned special importance to facades which they decorated, sometimes elaborately, with stone carvings and ceramic tiles. The public buildings, some of which are standing today, reflect the pecularities of the First National Movement. After the 1930s, foreign architects began to dominate aarchitectural activities. They brought functional designs and an austere look to buildings. Flat roofs were preferred; the facades were bereft of ornaments; large windows were used and almost invariably, buildings were erected in a design of which simplicity and function were given top priority. Most of these foreign architects also worked as instructors and professors in schools of architecture and thus trained a new generation of architects. Meanwhile the Turkish architects of the 1930s mostly followed these imported masters.
The SSecond National Architectural Movement, between 1940-1950, unlike the first, focused on some of the essential elements of design utilized in the civilian buildings of traditional Turkish architecture rather than merely on ornamental elements.
The architects of this „movement“ used structural elements such as eaves, wooden latticework, brackets and windows and carefully searched for a balance between the architectural ideas and elements they utilized. A meticulous workmanship in their works attracts attention. They were also careful about selecting the proper construction material to fit regional conditions. This facilitated and provided opportunities for the development of a local construction materials industry. The Macka Sark Kahvesi (Cafe) and various waterfront mansions on the Bosphorus are among the distinguished works of Sedat Hakki Eldem, one of the most important architects of the period. Emin Onat who is another noteworthy architect of this period produced works both with a regional and national perception. His Anitkabir (Atatürk’s Mausoleum) project in Ankara, which he designed together with Orhan Arda, is the most important monumental masterpiece of the period.
In the early 1950s, the influence of the Second National Architectural Movement rapidly faded and the influence of Western architecture intensified. This period, which lasted until the 1960s, and dduring which an exploration process in education, organization, design and application was predominant, can be regarded as a period of preparation for the emergence of contemporary Turkish architecture. Since the 1960s Turkish architects have been involved in an unending exploration of concepts, scientific principles and aesthetic values in architectural design. This resulted in the emergence of a myriad of approaches and tendencies and led to a dynamic and productive pluralism in architecture. No single vision and no single movement dominates the contemporary Turkish architectural scene. While making contributions emanating from their own creative resources, and from their unique personal or stylistic tendencies, contemporary Turkish architects have tried almost every architectural approach, from the use of fantastic and/or irrational forms to expressionist approaches, from creating monumental symbols to the utilization of traditional elements and from an arabesque search to postmodernist designs.
Art of Cartoon
In Turkey, the art of cartoon started in the second half of 19th century and has developed in parallel to liveliness in publication life. With the publication of the first humor magazine, Diyojen , cartoon reached an independent milieu of publication. The cartoons of the period show, generally, the characteristic of drawings that emphasize the humorous side of aanecdotes and poems, and of those drawings that ornament them.
With the establishment of the Republic, Cemal Nadir Guler and Ramiz Gokce, two important artists of Turkish cartoons, contributed, with their drawings, to the efforts of establishing a new state and of creating a Republican society. In the same period, Akbaba (Vulture), the most long-lived humor magazine of the Republican period, published by Yusuf Ziya Ortac, and in which various tendencies were displayed, left its mark on the period, in view of its cadre of strong authors and cartoonists.
Along with the new freedoms due to the transition to multi-party order in the aftermath of World War II, a transformation was experienced in hu- mor. Marko Pasa, which was published by Saba- hattin Ali and Aziz Nesin and whose cartoonist was Mustafa Uykusuz, was the most important humor magazine of the period.
The Generation of the 1950’s that brought a new concept to the art of cartoon, developed a car- toon humor not based on writing and word. This group, forming a new and contemporary aesthetics of cartoon art, analyzed the structural problems of society in depth and drew accordingly. They spread their new concept of cartoon, not only
by drawing, but also by collective exhibitions, articles, seminars and by such humor magazines as 41 Bucuk (41 and a half), Tef (Tambourine), Dolmus (Taxi) and Tas-Karikatur (Stone Cartoon).
The famous cartoonists of the period are Turhan Selcuk, Nehar Tublek, Ali Ulvi Ersoy, Eflatun Nuri Koc, Selma Emiroglu, Semih Balcioglu, Bedri Koraman, Altan Erbulak, Mustafa Eremektar, Sinan Bicakcioglu, Ferruh Dogan, Tonguc Yasar, Suat Yalaz, Yalcin Cetin and Oguz Aral. Cafer Zorlu, Zeki Beyner, Tan Oral, Nezih Danyal, Ercan Akyol, Erdogan BBozok, Orhan Ozdemir and Selcuk Demirel who were brought up between 1960 and 1970, continued the cartoon concept of the Generation of the 1950’s by their original contributions.
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