BALANCED DIET 2
EUROPEAN UNION & NATO 6
FOREIGN LANGUAGES 7
HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS 8
JUNK FOOD 9
LITHUANIA IN 50 YEARS’ TIME 10
MASS MEDIA 11
PROFILE EDUCATION 12
SMOKING & DRUGS 13
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 15
WEATHER 17BALANCED DIET
Developing healthy eating habits isn’t as confusing or as restrictive as many people imagine. The first principle of a healthy diet is simply to eat a wide variety of foods. This is important because different foods make different nutritional contributions.
Secondly, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes—foods high in complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, low in fat, and free of cholesterol—should make up tthe bulk of the calories you consume. The rest should come from low-fat dairy products, lean meat and poultry, and fish.
You should also try to maintain a balance between calorie intake and calorie expenditure—that is, don’t eat more food than your body can utilize. Otherwise, you will gain weight. The more active you are, therefore, the more you can eat and still maintain this balance.
Following these three basic steps doesn’t mean that you have to give up your favorite foods. AAs long as your overall diet is low in fat and rich in complex carbohydrates, there is nothing wrong with an occasional cheeseburger. Just be sure to limit how frequently you eat such foods, and try to eat small portions oof them.
You can also view healthy eating as an opportunity to expand your range of choices by trying foods that you don’t normally eat—especially vegetables, grains, or fruits. A healthy diet doesn’t have to mean eating foods that are bland or unappealing.
The following basic guidelines are what you need to know to construct a healthy diet.
1 Limit your total fat intake. Fat should supply less than 30% of your total daily calories. Limit your intake of fat by having a semi-vegetarian diet. Choose lean meats, light-meat poultry without the skin, fish, and low-fat dairy products. In addition, cut back on vegetable oils and butter—or foods made with these—as well as on mayonnaise, salad dressings, and fried foods.
2 Eat foods rich iin complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates should contribute at least 55% of your total daily calories. To help meet this requirement, eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and six or more servings of grains or legumes daily. This will help you obtain the 20 to 30 grams of dietary fiber you need each day, as well as provide important vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
3 Avoid too much sugar. Besides contributing to tooth decay, sugar is a source of „empty“ calories, and many foods tthat are high in sugar are also high in fat. What is more, cut back on your use of salt in cooking and on the table, also avoid salty foods.
4 Make sure to include fruits and vegetables—such as broccoli, carrots, cantaloupe, and citrus fruits. The antioxidants and other nutrients in these foods are regarded as increasingly important in helping protect against developing certain types of cancer and other diseases. Eat five or more servings a day.
5 Maintain a moderate protein intake. Protein should make up about 12% of your total daily calories. Choose low-fat sources such as nuts, legumes and cereal foods (rice, wheat).
6 Eat a variety of foods. Don’t try to fill your nutrient requirements by eating the same foods day in, day out. It is possible that not every essential nutrient has been identified, and so eating a wide assortment of foods helps to ensure that you will get all the necessary nutrients.
7 Maintain an adequate calcium intake. Calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth. Get your calcium from low-fat sources, such as skim milk and low-fat yogurt. If you can’t get the optimal amount from foods, take supplements.
8 Consider taking supplements of the antioxidant vitamins E aand C. Also consider taking a basic daily multivitamin/mineral supplement, especially if you are a woman of child-bearing age (who needs extra folic acid, a B vitamin) or over age 60 (because of decreased nutrient absorption by the body).
9 If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. That is one drink a day for women, two a day for men. A drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof spirits. Excess. alcohol consumption leads to a variety of health problems. And alcoholic beverages can add many calories to your diet without supplying nutrients.CINEMA
Nowadays there is a huge variety of entertainment and one of the most popular is cinema. So I would like to express my opinion about films I watch.
To begin with, the greatest influence on my choice about films is made by my friends. We usually share information with each other about the latest films. So if we decide that e new movie is rather good we just buy tickets and go to the cinema to watch it. However, sometimes we don’t agree with each other if a film is worth watching. In that case, we start a long discussion aabout actors and actress starring in that film, genre, special effects, directors and sometimes soundtracks are included. For me well-known actors/actress and genre are of the greatest importance in evaluating a film. So while arguing I pay most of my attention on these aspects. Usually after such discussions we don’t find a compromise and just become angry with each other, because I and my friends like different aspects of a film.
Another important thing while choosing a film is reviews in press. I usually read opinions about released films in newspaper or magazine, but like I said the last decision is made by my friends, except those times when we can’t find a compromise. If such a thing happens, adverts on TV and radio help me to decide about a film.
What is more, a lot of people are influenced by reduced prices in cinema, but I and my friends have strong a opinion prices, if movie is worth watching nothing except war or diseases can prevent us from seeing it.
I think a good movie should be watched in a cinema in order to notice all the special effects on the big screen and to be thrilled by amazing acoustics. On the
other hand, if you don’t know English well you will have to read titles, so you won’t concentrate enough on the movie.
Seeing a new film on video is also a good idea as you have the ability to analyse every single detail and to watch again if you don’t understand something, but you won’t be so thrilled as watching in the cinema.
Many people decide to wait until a new film is shown on TV, so that they won’t have to ppay for watching it, but in my opinion it isn’t worth waiting for years, because you aren’t sure if that film will be on your TV channels’ list.
In conclusion, I would like to say that cinema is a good type of entertainment, so if you feel exhausted after a hard day, a good movie will always help you to relax.CRIME
Nowadays our life isn’t safe. It seems that neither police, nor government can guarantee public safety. Statistics show that violent crimes aat present have increased. So no one can live in peace and feel safe even in his own home. This situation in Lithuania is getting hopeless.
The fact shows that there isn’t a day in a week without murders, robberies or bburglaries. Radio, television and other mass media present news that cars are often stolen by criminals or thieves in Lithuania. What is more, we are not safe enough early in the morning or late in the evening in the streets, because muggers can attack us any time.
There are various kinds of crime nowadays in Lithuania. A lot of dangerous criminals are allowed to escape and roam free. There are more and more burglars, kidnappers, murders, muggers and arsonist, who commit crimes and succeed in escaping penalties by engaging good lawyers.
Most often burglars break into one’s house through the open window or unlocked door and it makes no difference whether it is day or night. They usually take expensive things oor money and leave the house in an awful mess. So people should always check if all the windows are closed and all the doors are locked. Also they could install an alarm system. Moreover, in Lithuania burglars and muggers usually murder people for only a small amount of money and especially they attack old people who are too weak to defence themselves.
Juvenile delinquency [džiuvenail delinkvensi] has become a serious problem as well. The most urgent youth problems are narcotics, aalcohol, shoplifting and also mugging. Teenagers become addicted to bad habits at a very early age, so government and parents should solve the youth problem and prevent them from crimes and bad habits.
Some people rob and commit crimes, because of hunger or poverty. But the worst thing is that, if you are poor and can’t afford to have a good lawyer, you can be convicted of murder and imprisoned even being completely innocent. Sometimes it is very sad, because there is one law for the rich and another for the poor people.
If I were the Minister of Justice I would make some changes. Firstly, I would send more policemen to patrol in the streets-especially in the evening, so that people could go for a walk without fear. Secondly, I would restore death punishment. Very dangerous criminals would die and wouldn’t be social burden [biodin]. Finally, I would tighten laws and improve very strict punishments. I think all those changes have effect and there would be less crimes in Lithuania.ENVIRONMENT
Lithuania has a very beautiful landscape, but environment pollution is increasing every day. So if people don’t make any changes we soon won’t have a quite and clean place to relax, also ffauna and flora won’t have their natural habitat. For this reason they will become extinct. This is the main fact why conservation groups try to protect and expand national parks or conservation areas in Lithuania.
As I mentioned Lithuania is very attractive for its landscape, but do fauna and flora feel safe in those areas? The answer is no. This is so, because people don’t bother about the environment. They drop litter everywhere they go and so these can cause a lot of problems. Cigarette butts and matches can start fires, so fauna and flora can be destroyed. What is more, broken bottles, rusty cans and empty packages spoil the countryside, let alone that they can cause serious injuries, especially to wild animals.
Another problem is deforestation, which is caused by burning or cutting down trees. As a result, there are no wolves and bears left in Lithuania. Also pollution and poachers are at fault. Chemical waste are released into the air and water, so animals’ natural habitat become polluted and unsuitable to live and poachers hunt endangered animals, so these animals become extinct more quickly.
Conservation groups try to prevent such things in national parks, but they don’t have enough mmoney and equipment to ensure the security and to catch every offender. Such places like Nida, Kursiu Nerija, Ignalina national park are the natural habitat for many species of animals and plants, but these species don’t feel safe there. So I think that the government should pay more attention to this problem. At first, they should give bigger fines and spend more money on the protection of national parks. Secondly, they should expand the territories of Lithuanian national parks and conservation areas, so that fauna and flora could be safe in their natural surrounding.
Once you visit these beautiful places, you can’t believe that Lithuania has such an amazing landscape. I have visited national parks of Kursiu Nerija and Nida and I was stunned by those enormous sandhills, which can be found only in a few countries and Lithuania is one of them.
So in conclusion I want to say that Lithuanian people should be proud that they have such a beautiful landscape and they should also try to protect it from pollution, deforestation and poachers.EUROPEAN UNION & NATO
NATO and the EU are two big and powerful organizations and they have a lot of member countries, which support each other with essential
things (as money and new technologies). There are a lot of opinions of joining such organizations. Some people say that it is beneficial to be a member of NATO and the EU, while others disagree with this idea. So I would like to express my opinion about both NATO and the EU.
Firstly, I would like to speak about the EU. The EU is a unique treaty organization managing economic and political cooperation between European countries. The process of integration began iin 1950’s by six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands). The goal of the union remained the same ever since – to create an ever closer union among the people of Europe.
So a few positive things should be mentioned. First, People have the ability to travel easier than they could before. It is very convenient, as you do not have to wait hours at the customs. Second, there are more opportunities to apply for a job abroad. Employers ffrom other countries are tended to search qualified workers in new member countries, where a lot of good specialist just dream of working abroad. Last, members receive a lot of financial support from the EU, which is very important for tthe economy of every country.
On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of joining the EU. To begin with, some companies will have to be shut down, because they do not suit the EU standards, so a lot of people will loose their jobs. What is more, cheep productions from other member countries will be imported, so companies which make more expensive, but usually better in quality items will just become bankrupt.
Now I would like to say a few words about NATO. NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is a military alliance of Western nations for the purpose of collective defense. It was established by the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.
At first, positive aspects should be considered. If ccountries decide to join NATO they will get all type of necessary protection against enemies and they won’t have to be afraid of losing their independence. Furthermore, this organization supports with money and helps to modernize military technologies. Besides, military bases will be built and soldiers will secure such countries all the time.
Despite having great advantages, joining NATO also has some drawbacks. Firstly, the preparation to join NATO requires a lot of money and it would be more beneficial to mmodernize the economy of the country, than to spend huge sums of money on joining NATO. Secondly, member countries have to send their soldiers to dangerous places and to secure them, so it is believed that people shouldn’t risk their own lives for other countries.
So In conclusion, I would like to say that joining the EU and NATO is very useful, but member countries should not forget about the disadvantages these organizations have.FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Nowadays it is very important to know a foreign language, because you have the ability to socialize with people from all over the world. In fact, there is a huge variety of languages these days and people just can’t learn all of them. Because of this, the easiest learnt language was chosen to communicate with people from foreign countries. That language is English.
To begin with, millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is also the major language of diplomacy. In our country it is very popular too: it is studied at schools, colleges and universities. So if you know English you won’t have problems abroad. You ccan socialize with people, read books and papers, listen to the songs words and even watch films without translation. What is more, it is easier to apply for a job.
In my opinion people should concentrate on learning a foreign language at an early age, because when you are young and your mind isn’t crammed with information you learn everything quicker. For example, English, Russian and German are taught at my school. I am only good at English, because I have been learning it since second form and now I can speak it fluently. However, I started to learn Russian at sixth form and this language was very hard for me to learn, because I had to pay a lot of attention to other subjects, so finally I decided to reject Russian.
To overcome such problems, in 2001 on the 26th of September Europe started celebrating the Day of Languages. The aims of this day are to alert the public to the importance of language learning, to increase awareness and appreciation of all the languages spoken in Europe and to encourage lifelong language learning.
At my school we also celebrate the Day of Languages. Not only pupils but also teachers are involved in tthe organization of this day. They usually find a material about foreign countries, their customs and traditions and try to educate other pupils. Though the main idea of this event is to explain the importance of learning foreign languages.HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS
People have celebrated a mid-winter festival since pre-historic times. They marked the beginning of longer hours of daylight with fires and ritual offerings. The Roman festival of Saturnalia — a time for feasting and gambling — lasted for weeks in December. Germanic tribes of Northern Europe also celebrated mid-winter with feasting, drinking and religious rituals.
It’s thought that Jesus of Nazareth was born in springtime. December 25th was chosen for the celebration of his birth by a Pope, Julius I, in the 4th century — to include a Christian element in the long-established mid-winter festivals.
Also in the 4th century, a bishop in Turkey who came to be called St. Nicholas was known for good deeds involving children. St. Nicholas is illustrated in medieval and renaissance paintings as a tall, dignified and severe man. His feast day on December 6 was celebrated throughout Europe until about the 16th century. Afterwards, he continued to be known in Protestant Holland.
would put shoes by the fireplace for St. Nicholas or Sinter Klaas and leave food out for his horse. He’d gallop on his horse between the rooftops and drop candy down the chimneys into the children’s shoes. Meanwhile, his assistant, Black Peter, was the one who popped down the chimneys to leave gifts behind. Dutch settlers brought the legend of Sinter Klaas to North America — where we came to know him as Santa Claus. The jolly old elf with hhis sleigh drawn by reindeer was first described by Clement Clarke Moore, in the poem The Night Before Christmas.
Although it was never celebrated in biblical times, Christmas is celebrated in local churches here in Visalia, California in praise of the fact that God loved us so much, he sent his one and only son to earth. He was wholey god and wholey man. Whereas we have succumbed to the temptations of this earth, Jesus was able to overcome all ttemptations and live a sinless life. He was then crucified as the perfect sacrifice for our sins. One can not understand why we celebrate the birth of Christ without seeing the other end of his life. He was crucified for oour sins and resurrected.
Christmas was declared a Federal Holiday in America on June 26, 1870 under the government headed by President Ulysses S. Grant during the period of reconstruction following the American Civil War. Thus, it is untrue that Christmas has always been a Federal holiday. When Charles Dickens published his Christmas Carol in 1843, the US Government was a Scrooge and remained so for 26 years. However, it is a holiday in the United States this year!
Thus, in our culture a question to ask is whether Christmas is a seasonal celebration of winter or a religious celebration honoring the birth of Christ. In truth, it is a mixture of both with, as any economist will confirm, quite aa bit of materialism thrown in.Have a Great Season, My Great Friend!JUNK FOOD
In today’s fast-moving world, people have less time to spend eating, let alone cooking. It is so, because junk food became very popular. In fact, one British hotel group recently announced that its guests are able to order fast food through room service. This move signify a new era in the couch potato lifestyle. So what exactly is junk food.
Basically, it is anything that is high in calories bbut lacking in nutrition. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars, hot dogs and pizzas fall in this category.
Obviously, a diet of junk food is not the best thing for your health, particularly as it is high in saturated fat. In 1993, the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported this type of fat to be associated with greater risk of cancer.
Apart from the risk of cancer, another side effect of consuming highly fattening junk food is that you are likely to gain weight. This is especially true because you tend to eat more, as junk food is less satisfying and lower in vital nutrients that healthier food.
The best advice for those who cannot live without their hamburgers or chocolate bars, is to limit the amount of junk ...