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Promotion of Efficiency of Consumption of Natural Energy Resources

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Promotion of Efficiency of Consumption of Natural Energy Resources


Energy is a factor of the well being of the people and is a production factor of the commercial and industrial sectors. As a result, energy is a prime mover of the country’s competitive edge and economic development in the long term. Energy is the power we use for transportation, for heat and light in our homes and for the manufacture of all kinds of products. There are two sources of energy: renewable and nonrenewable energy. Nonrenewable energy we use ccomes from fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Uranium is another nonrenewable source, but it is not a fossil fuel. Uranium is converted to a fuel and used in nuclear power plants. Once these natural resources are used up, they are gone forever. The process of gathering these fuels can be harmful to the biomes from which they come. Fossil fuels are put through a process called combustion in order to produce energy. Combustion releases pollution, such aas carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, which may contribute to acid rain and global warming. Renewable sources of energy can be used over and over again. Renewable resources include solar energy, wind, geothermal energy, biomass and hydropower. They generate much lless pollution, both in gathering and production, than nonrenewable sources.

Although non-renewable energy derived from fossil fuel resources will remain the major source of energy for the global consumption for no less than 30-40 years, such energy resources will eventually be depleted. Hence, many countries have paid greater attention to renewable energy development during the past decade (1990-2000). The average growth rate of renewable energy consumption is 8% per year while the consumption of energy derived from various types of fossil fuel grows at a maximum rate of 2% per year. It is necessarily to use energy effactively.

Energy types and consumption

Active Solar Space Heating – Air. Active solar space heating systems also can be found with air as the heat ddistribution fluid. They are typically identified by a thermal collector (air) separate from a living space, a storage medium (usually either rocks or masonry), and an externally powered distribution system that moves the heat from the solar collector to the heat storage area and from there to the living space. These systems also can be configured as „black attics“ or forced and thermosiphoning solar thermal air panels which use the whole house for heat storage.

Alternative Building Techniques. Alternative building ttechniques use common or innovative materials in uniquely efficient ways. Many new products are available for building construction that are made from recycled materials, require less raw material to produce, release fewer toxic compounds during manufacturing or installation, need less energy to install, or reduce the overall energy used to produce the material (referred to as low-embodied energy).

Alternative Fuels. Alternative fuels are primarily used in the transportation sector. The fuels ethanol and electricity can be produced from renewable energy resources while methanol, propane and natural gas are considered alternative transportation fuels but are generally produced from nonrenewable energy. Methane also can be generated from animal and human waste and by capturing landfill gases.

Active Solar Space Heating – Hydronic. Active solar space heating systems come in many different configurations. They are typically identified by a solar thermal collector (water), a storage medium (usually water in a storage tank), and an externally powered distribution system that moves the heat from the solar collector to the heat storage tank. Typically the hot water is circulated in a radiant floor heating system or through a fan coil mounted in the central air handling unit.

Biomass & Biogas. Biomass and biogas energy are dderived from any material containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Alcohol from crop residue, methane biogas from livestock manure, and heat from burning sawdust are all examples of turning a waste product into useful energy. Large scale biomass and biogas projects are under way in the state with the technology being used on a commercially and even smaller scale.

Electrical Storage. Renewable energy electricity systems are generally using a natural resource that is consistent, but not constant. By storing excess electricity in batteries, flywheels, pumped storage, compressed air or as hydrogen, renewable energy systems can extend there effectiveness and improve their economics.

Electric Vehicles. Cars, trucks and buses use an enormous amount of energy. Much of that energy is wasted during idling at a stoplight or because of the inefficient combustion of gasoline during acceleration. Even the most energy efficient cars can only convert 30% of the useful energy in gasoline to power at the wheels. Electric vehicles (EVs) are able to store electricity in batteries which provide overall power efficiencies of 80%. EVs can be recharged from the electrical grid or with renewable energy (often called zero-emission vehicles).

Electric Fuel Cells. Fuel cells recombine oxygen and hydrogen to form water aand in the process produce electricity. This is the opposite of electrolysis. Natural gas is currently being used as the primary source for the hydrogen in most applications; however, any renewable energy that produces electricity can be used to produce hydrogen for a fuel cell. Fuel cells can be considered an alternative form of electricity storage.

High Efficiency Woodstoves. Wood is a renewable energy source that is an excellent addition to a solar home design. Woodstoves are being produced with a very high combustion efficiency, which means less wood to chop, more heat in the house and fewer pollutants from the chimney. Fireplaces should be designed with an outside air source and glass doors to keep indoor air from going up the flue. For both fireplaces and woodstoves, it is best if the chimney is centrally located instead of on an exterior wall so that the heated masonry will warm the house and not the outdoors.

Greenhouses & Glazing. Greenhouses can be used for passive space heating but care should be given when building a greenhouse connected to a house. Higher temperatures and humidity beneficial to plants in the winter can adversely affect a building’s cooling load in the summer

and increase condensation problems in the winter. Consider building your greenhouse without sloped or horizontal glazing if you hope to gain some solar energy benefit without overheating, or at least provide summer shading and winter insulation for these surfaces.

Geothermal & GS Heat Pumps. The earth is a great resource for thermal energy. Geothermal systems typically refer to deep wells drilled in certain parts of the world where they tap into very high core temperatures by circulating fluid through the wwell which creates steam used mainly for generating electricity. Another way of using the earth’s relatively constant temperature is through groundsource heat pumps. These systems operate much more efficiently than air to air heat pumps, especially in the winter.

Micro-Hydropower. Consistent running streams and rivers are a good source for generating electricity and mechanical power. Small systems can be installed cost effectively provided there is a sufficient volume of water and drop in elevation, called „head.“ Larger scale dams, on tthe other hand, require large areas of land with a deep reservoir away from population centers.

Insulation, Air & Vapor Barriers. Many new technologies are available for improving the performance of a buildings envelope or shell. Better techniques and products aare available for installing insulation, new insulation products, insulated panel systems and concrete forms, improving air sealing and reducing moisture damage in building assemblies. A better building envelope conserves heating and cooling energy which makes passive, active and mechanical heating and cooling systems operate more efficiently.

Industrial Energy Efficiency. Energy efficiency is the utilization of energy for a process or activity in the most efficient manner possible as opposed to energy conservation, which is the reduction in the amount of an energy-using process or activity. Most industrial energy efficiency measures concentrate on motors, lighting, ventilation preheat, heat recovery, and applications of microwave drying technologies.

Indoor Air Quality & Ventilation. As buildings are made tighter to reduce energy use from infiltration, ttoxic indoor compounds from building materials, biological organisms, and mechanical processes begin to build up. Industrial hygiene and building science experts use proper ventilation techniques, non-toxic building materials and micro-organism mitigation to improve the quality of the indoor air.

Advanced Lighting & Controls. Advanced lighting systems use motion sensors, daylight harvesting, timers, high efficiency electronic ballasts and lamps, task lighting, and LED exit signs to improve the overall performance of the building.

Conservation Landscaping. The effective use of trees, shrubs, gground cover and vines can greatly improve a buildings thermal performance. Well designed landscapes will help shade and cool a building in the summer, yet provide full solar exposure in the winter. Trees can dramatically affect the temperature in parking lots and even in entire cities by reducing the „heat island“ effect.

Natural Lighting. Natural lighting (also known as „daylighting“) is the use of light from the sun to illuminate a buildings interior through the use of windows (sidelighting), monitors (toplighting) and skylights. New products in the form of light tubes have recently become available for residential natural lighting.

Permaculture. Permaculture designs view the building and the site as inseparable and integral parts of the whole. There is no distinction between outside and inside ...

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