Milk and Dairy Products
Milk, yogurt and ice cream are excellent sources of calcium and protein. But remember to check the label to see how much fat each product contains. The amount of fat affects the number of calories in each product.
• Milk and milk products are a source of protein, calcium, zinc and magnesium, vitamin B12 and riboflavin.
• Vitamins A and D are found in whole milk and its products
• Milk and milk products are the major source of ccalcium in the UK, contributing 43% of calcium intake in adults.
In the UK, cows’ milk is the type of milk most commonly consumed. Other types that are also used are ewes’ and goats’ milk. Most milk undergoes some form of heat processing such as pasteurisation, sterilisation or ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment. This is to ensure that any harmful micro-organisms are destroyed before the milk is consumed and to improve keeping qualities. The Food Standards Agency recommends that children, pregnant wwomen, older people and those who are unwell avoid unpasteurised milk and milk products. The Food Standards Agency also advises that pregnant women avoid soft mould ripened cheese, e.g. Brie, Camembert, and blue veined cheeses.
Milk has been derived from mmany types of mammals and put to different uses over the centuries. This has resulted in the development of a number of milk products. These include butter, cheese, cream, yogurt and similar to sour cream .
Milk is an emulsion, i.e. a suspension of tiny fat droplets in water. The fat droplets are coated with a thin layer of protein which helps maintain the suspension. The water also contains protein, sugar (lactose), mineral salts and water-soluble vitamins. Skimmed milk has had all the fat removed; semi-skimmed milk retains less than half of the fat of whole milk (1.7% compared with 3.9%). Some 1% fat milks are also now available:
Express Pasteurised Semi-Skimmed Milk
This milk has a fat content of 1.7%. Whilst most oof the fat has been removed it still contains all of the minerals and virtually all of the vitamins of whole milk. Sales of semi-skimmed milk have increased greatly over recent years and it is now the preferred type of milk by consumers.
Express Pasteurised Whole Milk
The glass bottle has a silver foil top. This is the most traditional type of milk. The fat content is less than 4% and the milk has the `full taste` flavour.
Express Pasteurised Skimmed Milk
Nearly all tthe fat has been removed from skimmed milk. The process of skimming the fat does remove vitamins A and D but the milk still contains all the other nutrients which Express whole milk contains plus an increased level of calcium.
Express Homogenised, Pasteurised Whole Milk
In homogenised milk the fat globules are broken up into a uniform small size so they remain evenly distributed throughout the milk. This type of milk is popular for customers wishing to make cappuccino type coffee, as this milk will froth easily.
Fermented milk is produced from milk fermented in the presence of bacteria and sometimes yeast. Fermented milk in the UK is commonly consumed in the form of a probiotic milk drink.
Cream is made by separating the fat and solids from milk. It is a fat-in-water emulsion. When whipping or double cream is whipped it changes from a liquid to a foam. This is due to the partial denaturation of the proteins, which stabilise the mixture by trapping air. The composition of the different types of cream is controlled by law.
Cheese can be classified in a number of ways, for example by the place where it is produced or the method of production. Generally it is ccomposed of milk solids, including some water and other ingredients. An enzyme called rennin is used to clot the milk and produce the milk solids (casein curd) and liquid (whey), which is drained off. The different kinds of cheese (e.g. hard cheese such as cheddar, mould-ripened cheeses such as Brie, fresh cheeses such as curd cheese) result from different methods of production and raw ingredients.
Yogurt is milk which has been coagulated and soured by lactic acid. The lactic acid is produced by the addition of harmless bacteria. Bio yogurts contain live bacteria (or cultures).
Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion made from cream. Its composition is controlled by law; butter must contain at least 80%, but no more than 90% milk fat, no more than 2% dry non-fat milk material and no more than 16% water.
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