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Kaunas 2006








Nowadays managing is very important in our life. Everyone wants to manage, but not everybody can be good managers. John Peet, British Management Consultant said that management problems always turn out to be people problems. In our life are three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal.

Good managers must have a cross-cultural awareness. It is very important to realize other country’s mores and understand differences between countries. Managers need tto be good at observing, listening, asking questions and speaking. If you want good relations between you work team (staff) you have to learn observing, listening other people and let them to talk also you have to know how to ask some questions, how to find out some information and finally you have to learn speaking for audience, for other people.

Work goal is to explain managing concept.

Work objectives:

1. To give theory of managing people.

2. To describe managing styles.

3. To identify new managing roles.

Method: lliterature analysis1. MANAGING THEORY

Writing on organization and managing, in some form or another, can be traced back thousands of years. However, the systematic development of managing thinking is viewed, generally, as dating from the end of the nineteenth century with tthe emergence of large industrial organizations, and the ensuing problems associated with their structure and managing.

A central part of the study of organization and managing is the development of managing thinking and what might be termed managing theory. The application of theory brings about change in actual behaviour. Managers reading the work of leading writer of the subject might see in their ideas and conclusions a message of how they should behave. This will influence their attitudes towards managing practice. McGregor said that every managerial act rest on assumptions, and hypotheses. Our assumptions are frequently implicit, sometimes quite unconscious, often conflicting; nevertheless, they determine our predictions that if we do a, b will occur. Theory and practice are inseparable.

Managing is eespecially important and difficult function of management. Managing it is a person or group of person, which govern other people actions and efforts to realize put forward general aim, that more efficient will be used all available resources. Today vary not just culture of organization, but and managing theory, that’s mean that vary manager role in organization. It is not enough to be manager, which can analyze and solve problems, because in these days a lot of exercises can be ddone by computer. From modern manager more and more often enjoin humanity and leader skills.

Manager is a link which not only creates vision or mission, care about harmony and development of organization, but they also help to employees to realize their individual, organizational and social roles.

If modern manager want to achieve effective managing he have to realize organization or his subdivision aims, to be able to see most important problems, be minded to innovation and alteration, to forecast activity results. He has to know how to have a logical mind, creatively to solve problems, to run the venture in minimum outlay, to take solutions and not to avoid responsibility for it. Manager have to be energetic, determined, high – minded, tolerant, he have to know how to communicate with employees, continually to improve his knowledge and skills. In sorter we can say that managers need to be good at observing, listening, asking questions and speaking.

In addition to serving at different levels of authority, managers work in different capacities within organizations. Line managers directly contribute to the production of the organization’s basic goods or services. Staff managers use special technical expertise to advise and support line workers. Functional managers aare responsible for one area of activity, such as finance, marketing, production, personnel, accounting, or sales. General Managers are responsible for complex multi – functional units. An administrator is a manager in a public or nonprofit organization.

The study of managing theory is important, therefore, because:

• What leading writers say is an important part of the study of managing;

• It is necessary to view the interrelationships between the development of theory, behaviour in organizations and managing practice;

• An understanding of the development of managing thinking helps in understanding principles underlying the process of managing;

• Knowledge of the history helps in understanding the nature of managing and organizational behaviour, and reasons for attention given to main topic areas;

• Many of the earlier ideas of continuing importance to the manager and later ideas on managing tend to incorporate earlier ideas and conclusions.2. MANAGING STYLES

Now days in literature are a lot of attitudes to managing styles. Such variety depends on manager and employee’s relations variety and difficulty. But we can mark the similar attributes which are natural for the same managing style. By this attributes we can arrange and define different styles of managing.

Maybe first time was tried to describe managing styles in Plato’s work ‘Valstybė’. He ddefined such styles of managing:

• Timocracy – it means that managing style depends on manager’s ambitions and the lust for power.

• Oligarchy – it is a system based on property qualification, and the main motivation of manager activity is greediness.

• Democracy – it means that national responsibility is given out by lot or by election, and all citizens are equal.

• Tyranny – it means that managing style is conditioning by cruel human tendency.

But in our life are just three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal.

Managing style Advantages Disadvantages

Authoritarian 1. Vouchsafe operative problems solution, managing unity and actions coordination.

2. For authoritarian manager is par for the course energy, good reaction, cleverness, diligence, capability to organize his and subordinates work. 1. Such managing can be the course of collective disunity, distrust each other, it can determine arduous work.

2. Subordinate’s passivity and coming formal attitude to work

Democratic 1. Conceding the right to solve them, the manager give the opportunity for employees to realize the point of work or issue, to bring into play themselves intellectual and professional potential and an opportunity to improve.

2. Good and employable atmosphere dominated in collective, come comradeship between employees.

3. Not grudge appreciations and compliments for employee’s initiative, positive work’s results. 1. Can suffer solutions

efficiency because more problems are solving collegially.

2. Manager can escape responsibility and load it to collective because the solution was taken up collegially.

Liberal 1. To give the right and full freedom for themselves employees to take the solutions, employees can use their professional and creative capability.

2. With employees manager behave politely and with tact. 1. Can’t something to change radically, manager isn’t strict and can’t to protect his opinion.

2. Hasn’t vocation for organizational work, weakly manage and administrate.

Authoritarian managing style

Good management technique used to be ssimple. The boss told employees what to do, and they complied. No one worried if somebody’s feelings were hurt along the way. Employees who failed to toe the line were either whipped into shape or fired. These authoritarian managers believed that authority should (in a moral sense) be obeyed. Therefore, they expected unquestioning obedience from their subordinates and they, in turn, submissively obeyed their own superiors. Fear ran the work setting. The system was efficient.

Health care delivery, in particular, followed tthis autocratic model. The physician’s order ruled, without question or negotiation. Physicians, in turn, had their own hierarchy. Authority was understood, respected, and obeyed.

The example set by past generations has led to huge numbers of autocratic managers today. Some lead tthis way because they honestly, and consciously, believe it is the best management style. For most, however, it is how they were treated throughout their careers (particularly at a first job). The cycle works very much like child abuse, where the abused child grows up to be an abusive adult. If you were managed by an autocrat, it is very likely that your most natural, comfortable method of ...

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