2. What is graphic design?
3. Graphic design
3.1 Classic theory of design
3.2 Elements of design
3.4 Principles of design
4. Where to find graphic design
5. Early history
6. 20th century
7. Soviet Constructivism
8. Computer programs
10. Literature used
I have chosen „Graphic design“ theme , because this theme is interesting, it would be useful to study this for everybody in my chosen theme I analyze, what is graphic design, briefly I will familiarize you with graphic design history, with programs used, by graphic designers, writing this work II used different kinds of literature: books, magazines, internet…I have learned to choose and systemize needed literature, independently dredge my knowledge in particular themes, form independent work skills.
What is graphic design?
“Graphic design is the most ubiquitous of all the arts. It responds to needs at once personal and public, embraces concerns both economic and ergonomic, and is informed by many disciplines, including art and architecture, philosophy and ethics, literature and language, science and politics and performance.
“Graphic design is everywhere, ttouching everything we do, everything we see, everything we buy: we see it on billboards and in Bibles, on taxi receipts and on websites, on birth certificates and on gift certificates, on the folded circulars inside jars of aspirin and oon the thick pages of children’s chubby board books.
“Graphic design is the boldly directional arrows on street signs and the blurred, frenetic typography on the title sequence to E.R. It is the bright green logo for the New York Jets and the monochromatic front page of the Wall Street Journal. It is hang-tags in clothing stores, postage stamps and food packaging, fascist propaganda posters and brainless junk mail.
“Graphic design is complex combinations of words and pictures, numbers and charts, photographs and illustrations that, in order to succeed, demands the clear thinking of a particularly thoughtful individual who can orchestrate these elements so they all add up to something distinctive, or useful, or playful, or surprising, or subversive or ssomehow memorable.
“Graphic design is a popular art and a practical art, an applied art and an ancient art. Simply put, it is the art of visualizing ideas.”
Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message, or facilitate understanding. It may be applied in any media, such as print, digital media, motion pictures, animation, product design, packaging, and information signs. Graphic design as a practice can be traced back to the oorigin of the written word, but only in the late 19th century did it become identified as a separate entity.
Graphic design is a porous discipline, and overlaps significantly with other disciplines, including, but not limited to, the visual arts, architecture, interior design, illustration, photography, human-computer interaction, user interface design, information design and interaction design. Designers may produce ethnographies as part of the qualitative research for defining needs or features for a product, service or communication object. A relatively recent development is the closely related practice of experience design.
The fundamental principles of design are alignment, balance, color, contrast, emphasis, movement, pattern, proportion, proximity, repetition, rhythm, texture, unity, and white space.
Classic theory of design
According to the classic theory of design (or graphic design, visual design), the visual pleasantness and other abstract qualities people perceive in a work of design are a result of how the composition of the elements of design follows the principles of design. There is no authorities classic theory of design, since the recognition of these qualities has existed for thousands of years. First conceptualized accounts have probably appeared in early books about architecture, and composition in art.
Elements of design
The elements of design are the fundamental, isolated parts or aaspects into which any work of design can be decomposed to. An element of design may appear explicitly or implicitly (e.g. the boundary between two areas of contrasting color is an implicit line).
Principles of design
The principles of design are general characterizations of relations between elements in a composition.
Where to find graphic design
– Record albums
– Audio tapes & CD covers
– Counter and floor displays
– Book jackets and interiors
– Museum exhibition
– Film titles
– College publications
– Signage in public spaces
– Supermarket signs & décor
– Poster and flyers
– Business stationery
– Sign and sign system
– Mail order catalog
– Corporate images
– Labels/ maps/ graphs
– Presentation materials
– Conference materials
– Slides/ overheads
– Direct mail
– Greeting cards
– Annual reports
Saul Bass’s poster for the film, The Man with the Golden Arm – a highly regarded work of graphic design. The film was also notable for its groundbreaking title sequence, also by Bass.
The compelling—if somewhat obscure— paintings in the caves of Lascaux around 14,000 BC and the birth of written language in the third or fourth millennium BC, are both significant milestones in the history oof graphic design and other fields which hold roots to graphic design.
The Book of Kells is a very beautiful and very early example of graphic design in a form that would be acceptable even today. The Book is a lavishly illustrated hand-written copy of the Christian Bible created by Irish monks in the ninth century AD.
Johann Gutenberg’s introduction of movable type in Europe made books widely available. The earliest books produced by Gutenberg’s press and others of the era (the Incunabula) became the benchmark by which the design of future books, even as late as the 20th century, would be judged. Graphic design of this era is called either Old Style (especially the typefaces which these early typographers used), or Humanist, after the predominant philosophical school of the time.
Graphic design after Gutenberg saw a gradual evolution rather than any significant change, until the late 19th century when, especially in Britain, an effort was made to create a firm division between the fine and the applied arts.
Piet Mondrian, born in 1872, is often called the father of graphic design. Although he was a fine artist (not a graphic designer) his use of grids inspired the basic structure of the modern advertising
layout known also as the grid system, used commonly today by graphic designers.
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