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Goverment in lithuania the UK and the USA

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Goverment in lithuania the UK and the USA

Three countries: Lithuania, The United Kingdom and The United States of America have their own government and laws. There are some points which are the same in the government of all three countries, but there are some which are different. I will try to show the difference and similarities in the systems of governments and how did the countries divide the power to different institutions.

The Lithuanian state is an independent democratic republic. The foundations of the political and social ssystem are enforced by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, adopted on October 25, 1992, which also establishes the rights, freedoms and obligations of citizens. The United States of America is a constitutional republic, a system where the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law and citizens elect representatives to government. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament composed of the Houses of Commons and Lords. Formally, executive power is vested in the Crown in the pperson of the Sovereign, but in reality, central government is carried out in the name of the Crown by ministers of state.

State power in Lithuania is exercised by the Seimas (Parliament), the President of the Republic, the Government and tthe Court. In The USA there are three main institutions: Congress (Legislative Branch), President (Executive Branch) and Supreme Court (Judicial Branch). In Britain the power is exercised by Monarch, the Parliament consisting of Houses of Lords and Houses of Common and The Government.

Role of Presidents and Monarchs

The President of the Republic of Lithuania is the highest official of the state. The President is elected by citizens of the Republic of Lithuania for the term of 5 years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The President of the Republic considers major political problems of foreign and home affairs, appoints and dismisses state officials provided by the Constitution and other laws, approves and publishes the llaws adopted by the Seimas or returns them with remarks for reconsidering, performs other duties specified in the Constitution. Policy issues, signs international treaties, and appoints or recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Lithuania in foreign countries and international organisations. The President appoints, upon approval of the Seimas, the Prime Minister, charges him or her to form the Government, and approves its composition, accepts resignation of the Prime Minister, appoints or dismisses individual ministers upon the recommendation of the PPrime Minister and other state officers, proposes Supreme Court judge and a Supreme Court Chairperson candidates to the Seimas, appoints Court of Appeal judges and the Court of Appeal Chairperson, appoints judges and chairpersons of district and local district courts, proposes to the Seimas the candidatures of three Constitutional Court judges, a Constitutional Court Chairperson, State Controller, and Chairperson of the Board of the Bank of Lithuania, and also appoints, upon the approval of the Seimas, the chief commander of the Army and the head of the Security Service. The President of the Republic of Lithuania is the Chief Commander of State armed forces, and exercises other important powers of the State. Valdas Adamkus was elected President of the Republic of Lithuania on July 12, 2004.

The President of the United States of America (sometimes abbreviated to „POTUS“) is the head of state of the United States. Under the U.S. Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

Because of the superpower status of the United States, the American President is widely considered to be the most powerful person on the earth, and is usually one of the world’s best-known public figures. TThe United States was the first nation to create the office of President as the head of state in a modern republic. Today the office is widely emulated all over the world in nations with a presidential system of government.

The 43rd and current President of the United States is George W. Bush. His first term was 2001–2005; his second term began in 2005 and will end in 2009.

Until the end of the 17th century, British monarchs were executive monarchs – that is, they had the right to make and pass legislation. Since the beginning of the 18th century, the monarch has become a constitutional monarch, which means that he or she is bound by rules and conventions and remains politically impartial. While acting constitutionally, the Sovereign retains an important political role as Head of State, formally appointing prime ministers, approving certain legislation and bestowing honors. The Queen also has important roles to play in other organisations, including the Armed Forces and the Church of England. The Queen is the United Kingdom’s Head of State. As well as carrying out significant constitutional functions, The Queen also acts as a focus for national unity, presiding at ceremonial occasions, visiting local communities and rrepresenting Britain around the world. The Queen is also Head of the Commonwealth. Currently in the UK the monarch is Queen Elizabeth II.

Role of the Parliaments

The Seimas is the supreme body of state power of the Republic of Lithuania. It comprises 141 deputies elected for a period of 4 years. The Seimas have the power to adopt the Constitution and amend it, to adopt laws, to consider drafts on the programs produced by the Government and to approve it, to control the activities of the Government, to approve the budget of the Government, to establish the state institutions provided by the law, to appoint and to dismiss chairpersons of the state institutions, to settle other issues pertaining to state power.

The UK Parliament is one of the oldest representative assemblies in the world, having its origins in the mid-13th Century. The United Kingdom Parliament today comprises members from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The present two-chamber system began in the 14th Century in England: the House of Lords (the upper house) and the House of Commons (the lower house) sit separately and are constituted on entirely different principles. The legislative process involves both Houses of Parliament and the


 The main functions of Parliament are to:

make all UK law

provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government

protect the public and safeguard the rights of individuals

scrutinise government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure

examine european proposals before they become law

hear appeals in the House of Lords, the highest Court of Appeal in Britain

debate the major issues of the day.

Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

The HHouse of Lords is the second chamber of the U.K. Houses of Parliament. Members of the House of Lords (known as ‘peers’) consist of Lords Spiritual (senior bishops) and Lords Temporal (lay peers). Law Lords (senior judges) also sit as Lords Temporal. Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

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