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2004/2005 m. m.


Communication is a transaction-an exchange-between two or more people. Sometimes it is felt to be the most important and meaningful part of a person’s life. Organizational communication can be internal and external, formal or informal. Several factors explain the importance of communication to the modern business organization:

 The growth of business organization

 The increased specialization of tasks

 A lack of skill among senders and receivers

 The relationships bbetween communication and organizational effectiveness

 The computerization of the business organization.

Also communication is verbal and nonverbal, but the biggest part takes nonverbal communication. And in conclusion I think that communication, on all levels, is very important for people.

Human communication and communication media

Effective communication can be hard to achieve . Sometimes it seems that no matter how carefully we try to phrase the things we say, the listener either doesn’t understand us, or they misunderstand us. In verbal communication we often add eemphasis through body language or the intonation of our voice. We may adopt defensive or intimidating postures to reinforce the intended messages and, of course, we may raise or lower our voices. These techniques are used subconsciously, having evolved over mmany thousands of years of human interaction.

Our modern communication strategies are founded on ancient capabilities developed via human-to-human communication.

Modern communications technologies enable different kinds of communication. Until Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, the written letter was the main means of long distance communication. In the intervening century people have adapted to the telephone and new means of communication evolved that are different from those used face-to-face.

If we can’t see the people we are speaking to, we can’t see their body language. This places great emphasis on the clarity of what is being said. If you observe someone you know making a ‘phone call you may see and hear them behaving differently to the way tthey would behave in a face-to-face conversation.

Some channels of communication seem to influence what we say and how we say it. And sometimes we read things into the message which are not there.

Communication Methods

Experts say that communication is composed of different methods: words, voice, tone and non-verbal clues. Of these, some are more effective in delivering a message than others. According to research, in a conversation or verbal exchange:

Words are 7% effective

Tone of voice is 338% effective

Non-verbal clues are 55% effective.

Non-verbal clues include:

 Body language (e.g., arms crossed, standing, sitting, relaxed, tense),

 Emotion of the sender and receiver (e.g., yelling, speaking provocatively, enthusiastic)

 Other connections between the people (e.g., friends, enemies, professional similarities or differences, personal similarities or differences, age similarities or differences, philosophical similarities or differences, attitudes, expectations).

In other words, WHAT you say is not nearly as important as HOW you say it!

Communication Elements

Elements of speaking:

 Body language

 Voice quality

 Intention

 Manner: directness, sincerity

 Dress and clothing (style, color, appropriateness for situation)

 Visual aids, animation

 Eye contact

 Emotional content, energy, strength

 Self-concept

 Concept of others

 Listening, hearing the underlying message

 Speaking from the heart

 Energy

 Setting, time, place, timing

 How the messenger holds the message

 Sensitivity

 Rhythm and pacing

 Attitude and confidence

 Rapport

 Agenda

 Purpose of communication – knowing what you want to communicate

 Clarity

 Silence, centering, looking

Elements of Listening:

 Attentiveness to speaker

 Eye contact

 Intention be fully awake and aware

 Openness: to other person and your own

 Paying attention

 Listening to yourself

 Feedback

 Body language

 Change in pattern

 Expectations about person speaking, about their message , about their agenda

Several myths and realities about the nature of ccommunication exist:

1. Myth: We only communicate when we intend to. Reality: We frequently communicate messages we are not aware of communicating.

2. Myth: We communicate as if words had specific meaning. Reality: Words do not have meanings; rather, meanings are based on individuals’ past experiences and perceptions .

3. Myth: We communicate primarily with words. Reality: The majority of the messages we communicate are based on the nonverbal aspects of communication.

4. Myth: Communication is one-way activity. Reality: Communication is a two-way activity in which feedback from the other party is crucial.

5. Myth: The message we communicate is identical to the message received. Reality: The message finally received by the listener is never identical to the message sent.

6. Myth: You can never give someone too much information. Reality: People can be given too much information. An information overload can be just as much of a problem as not having enough information.

Distortion in Sending and Receiving Messages

Picture 2

Notice that between the sender and the receiver the path appears to be straight. However, this is rarely the case. There are many different ways to distort the message or to filter it (both in delivering the message and in receiving the message). All of the distortions can occur for both the llistener and the receiver.

Improving verbal communications requires first that we understand that communication is rarely perfect or clear in and of itself. We must learn to listen better and speak more clearly. We must also check whether our message is delivered correctly and whether we have heard a message clearly.

Eye Contact

Especially important in facial communication is the role played by the eyes. Eye contact is one of the most powerful forms of nonverbal communication. Authority relationship as well as intimate relationships are frequently initiated and maintained with eye contact. Looking directly at a listener is usually thought to convey openness and honesty. You usually feel it is easier to trust someone who looks right at you. On the other hand, you tend to distrust those who don’t look directly at you, to attribute less confidence to those who avoid eye contact. In addition, prolonged eye contact can signal admiration, while brief eye contact usually means anxiety. Although more eye contact is usually better than less, note that direct eye contact of more than ten second can create some discomfort and anxiety .

What does the graphic tell you about this speaker?


A person’s general

posture, even without specific gestures, communicates meaning. It frequently gives clues about a person’s self-confidence or status. For example, an interviewer may conclude that an applicant is nervous if he or she sits with arms crossed and shoulders hunched. Posture is also a way of demonstrating interest in another person you are speaking with; you demonstrate interest in that person. Sitting back, on the other hand, may communicate a lack of interest.

Classification Systems

It is difficult to assess the exact iimportance of gesture and posture as modes of communication. However, they are assuming more importance in organizational life. A London-based management consultant, Warren Lamb, works by holding an interview session and watching for the following body movements:

 Side-to-side movements

 Forward and backward movements

 Vertical movements.

Communicating with Space

One more type of nonverbal communication is proxemics, or how we communicate with space. How close or far we stand in relation to the other person, where we sit in e room, and how we arrange tthe office furniture has a real impact upon communication. One of major writers on this type of communication is an anthropologist, Edward T. Hall. He identifies three major types of space:

Feature-fixed space

 Semi-fixed feature space

 Informal space.

Dress and appearance

All of us hhave heard the phrase “clothes make the person”. However most of us are not aware of the impact that our clothing has on those around us. Don’t underestimate appearance. A professional appearance is comparable to values, and regardless of your personal opinion, somewhere in the hiring process; appearance may become the deciding factor. I am not talking about wearing jeans to an interview. Most candidates believe they have a professional appearance and equate ability with job experience and academic success. Based on that definition, they feel they are the best-qualified candidates. This can sometimes be a sensitive area for candidates, but don’t be naïve or in denial that appearance doesn’t count .

Appearance Matters

Many books are available about dressing for success, bbut I have two important points to make. First, if you want to be a professional, look like a professional. I learned this in my first year of high school from my baseball coach. On our very first day of practice, we were all eager to begin hitting and throwing the baseball. Most of us had been playing organized baseball since we were eight years old. But on our first day of high school practice, we spent the entire time llearning the finer points of wearing the baseball uniform

At the time, I thought it was a waste of time, but over the years, I continue to hear the coach saying, “If you are going to be a professional, then you must look like a professional.“ Our dress set the tone for who we were and we took pride in our appearance. That pride carried over to the baseball field and we consistently won championships and sent many players to college on athletic scholarships and on to professional baseball. A second point of interest was that while we did not have the latest style uniforms in the state, because of the way we wore them, they appeared to be of much higher quality.

Look like a Professional

The second point concerns how you determine what professional dress is. It’s easy, just look at successful people. Don’t be misled by a few successful mavericks who dress counter to mainstream successful businessmen and women. ...

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