This is what the entrance of a New Kingdom temple may have
looked like in its glory days.
This is the outer court yard leading into the Hypostyle hall.
This is a reconstruction of The Colonnade of Amenhotep III
at the temple of Luxor. It leads out into the courtyard.
This is a reconstruction of The Court of Amonhotep III
at the temple of Luxor. This view looks back at the Colonnade.
The diagram shows the three design changes made during construction. 1st tthe mastaba, the traditional tomb of the pharaohs. 2nd the four step pyramid. 3rd enlarged to make a six step pyramid.
The chap responsible for the step pyramid was Imhotep, Djoser’s vizier. He is credited as being the inventor of building in stone and was a man of many talents – Architect, physician, master sculpture, scribe, and astronomer. He must be the first true genius in recorded history and his impression on the Egyptians was profound because later generations revered him aas a god of wisdom.
The temple at Kom Ombo
You can see by the temple plan (below) the two gateways. The right side is dedicated to Sobek, the left to Horus. Each of these two deities had their oown special ceremonies and festival
The temple at Kom Ombo
The temple at Kom Ombo is about 30 miles (48 km) north of Aswan and was built during the Graeco-Roman period (332 BC AD 395). There was an earlier structure from the 18th dynasty but little remains.
The temple is unique because it is in fact a double temple, dedicated to Sobek the crocodile god, and Horus the falcon-headed god. The layout combines two temples in one with each side having its own gateways and chapels.
Sobek is associated with the wicked god Seth, the enemy of Horus. In the Horus myth the allies of Seth made their escape by changing themselves into crocodiles.
Sobek’s chief sanctuary was at Kom Ombo, wwhere there were once huge numbers of crocodiles. Until recent times the Egyptian Nile was infested with these ferocious animals, who would lay on the riverbank and devour animals and humans alike. So it is not surprising that the local inhabitants went in fear.
They believed that as a totem animal, and object of worship, it would not attack them. Captive crocodiles were kept within the temple and many mummified crocodiles have been found in cemeteries, some of which can be sseen in the temple sanctuary today.
The Pyramids of Giza
The age of the first ancient wonders of the world began with the pyramids of Sneferu, he built three pyramids and may have had a hand in others. His pyramid at Medum began as a step pyramid and was then modified to form the first true pyramid. He built two pyramids at Dahshur one called the Bent Pyramid because its upper part has a shallower angle of inclination than the lower part.
Seneferu’s Bent pyramid at Dahshur was originally planned as a true pyramid, but its geometry was altered at a point just above half it’s height. The angle of incline was decreased from 54º 31′ 13“ to 43º 21′.
When Khufu, also known as Cheops, became pharaoh one of his first acts was to curtail the growing power of the priesthood. He „shut up all the temples and forbade sacrifices“. As a priest’s living came from performing these rituals it is not surprising that Khufu was unpopular with the religious orders.
Khufu’s pyramid at Giza showing the plan of passages and burial chamber. Some believe that his pyramid at Giza was built by slaves but this is not true. One hundred thousand ppeople worked on it for three months of each year. This was the time of the Nile’s annual flood which made it impossible to farm the land and most of the population was unemployed. He provided good food and clothing for his workers and was kindly remembered in folk tales for many centuries.
There are three pyramids at Giza, each ...