Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, then altered perception, followed by psychosis, fear, and finally auditory hallucinations. Indications of possible mis-use are cconfusion, disorientation, loss of motor nerve control, convulsions, shock, shallow respiration, involuntary defecation, drowsiness, respiratory depression and possible death. Alcohol is also known as: Booze, Juice, Brew, Vino, Sauce. You probably know why alcohol is abused some reasons are relaxation, sociability, and cheap high. But did you know that alcohol is a depressant that decreases the responses of the central nervous system. Excessive drinking can cause liver damage and psychotic behavior. As little as two beers or drinks can impair ccoordination and thinking. Alcohol is often used by substance abusers to enhance the effects of other drugs. Alcohol continues to be the most frequently abused substance among young adults. HERE ARE SOME STRAIGHT FACTS ABOUT ALCOHOL.. Alcohol abuse is a ppattern of problem drinking that results in health consequences, social, problems, or both. However, alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, refers to a disease that is characterized by abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior that leads to impaired control over drinking. Short-term effects of alcohol use include: -Distorted vision, hearing, and coordination -Altered perceptions and emotions -Impaired judgment -Bad breath; hangovers Long-term effects of heavy alcohol use include: -Loss of appetite -Vitamin deficiencies -Stomach ailments -Skin problems -Sexual impotence -Liver damage -Heart and central nervous system damage -Memory loss Here are some quick clues to know if I, or someone close, has a drinking problem: -Inability to control drinking–it seems that regardless of what you decide beforehand, you frequently wind up drunk -Using alcohol to eescape problems -A change in personality–turning from Dr. Jekyl to Mr. Hyde -A high tolerance level–drinking just about everybody under the table -Blackouts–sometimes not remembering what happened while drinking -Problems at work or in school as a result of drinking -Concern shown by family and friends about drinking If you have a drinking problem, or if you suspect you have a drinking problem, there are many others out there like you, and there is help available. You could talk to sschool counselor, a friend, or a parent. Excessive alcohol consumption causes more than 100,000 deaths annually in the United States, and although the number shows little sign of declining, the rate per 100,000 population has trended down since the early 1980s. Accidents, mostly due to drunken driving, accounted for 24 percent of these deaths in 1992. Alcohol-related homicide and suicide accounted for 11 and 8 percent respectively. Certain types of cancer that are partly attributable to alcohol, such as those of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity, contributed another 17 percent. About 9 percent is due to alcohol-related stroke. One of the most important contributors to alcohol-related deaths is a group of 12 ailments wholly caused by alcohol, among which alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver and alcohol dependence syndrome are the most important. These 12 ailments together accounted for 18 percent of the total alcohol-related deaths in 1992. Mortality due to the 12 causes rises steeply into late middle age range and then declines markedly, with those 85 and over being at less than one-sixth the risk of 55 to 64-year olds. The most reliable data are for the 12 conditions wholly attributable to alcohol. The map shows these data ffor all people 35 and over. The geographical distribution for men and women follows much the same pattern, although men are three times as likely to die of one of the 12 alcohol-induced ailments. The geographical distribution for whites and blacks follows roughly the same pattern but the rates for blacks are two and half times higher. In the late nineteenth century blacks, who were then far more abstemious than whites, were strong supporters of the temperance movement, but the movement in the South was taken over by whites bent on disenfranchising black people by any means possible, such as propagating lurid tales of drink-crazed black men raping white women. Consequently, blacks became less involved in the temperance movement, a trend that accelerated early in the twentieth century with the great migration of blacks to the North, where liquor was freely available even during Prohibition. The geographical pattern of mortality from the 12 conditions wholly caused by alcohol is partly explained by the average alcohol consumption among those who drink, which tends to be higher in the Southeast certain areas of the West and than elsewhere. In New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska, and in many counties in the Plains and Mountain sstates, the rates are high, in part, because of heavy drinking among Native Americans. Another possible contributor to high rates in the West is lower family and community support than elsewhere, as suggested by high divorce and suicide rates, low church membership, and the large number of migrants from other regions. In the South Atlantic states, black males contribute heavily to the high mortality rates, although white rates there are above average. One unexplained anomaly is the comparatively low rates in the area stretching from Kentucky through Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, to Louisiana, all states with high alcohol consumption among those who drink. There were at least four cycles of high alcohol consumption in the last 150 years with peaks in the 1840s, in the 1860s, the first decade of the twentieth century, and again in the 1970-1981 period. Each of these peaks was probably accompanied by an increase in alcohol-related deaths, as suggested by the course of liver cirrhosis mortality, which, since the early twentieth century, has followed more-or-less the same trend as consumption of beverages alcohol. America is now in a phase of declining alcohol consumption, so one would expect that the rate of alcohol-related deaths would continue to
decline. Among westernized countries, America in the early 1990s was somewhat below average in both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality. If you have been arrested for DWI, you may be court ordered to go to counseling for alcohol abuse. Does that mean that you’re an alcoholic? Sometimes people get the idea that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the same thing. They are not. The National Council on Alcoholism says, „Alcohol Abuse : a problem to solve. Alcoholism: a disease tto conquer.“ In case you have wondered what the difference is, here’s some help: Alcohol Abuse is the misuse of the substance, alcohol. You know you are abusing a substance when: -You continue to use it, even though you’re having social or interpersonal problems because of your use. -You still use it even though it’s causing you physical problems. -Using it the way you do is causing you legal problems. -You don’t live up to major responsibilities on the job oor in your family. Alcoholism refers to being addicted, or dependent on alcohol. You may be dependent on a substance if any three of the following are true: -You must use larger and larger amounts of it to get high. –You have withdrawal when you try to stop or cut down. -You use it much more and for longer times than you really want to. -You can’t seem to cut back and feel a strong need or craving for it. -You spend a lot of your time just getting the substance. -You’d rather use than work or be with friends and family. -You keep using, no matter what. The National Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism estimates, based on research, that a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) between .02 and .04 makes your chances of being in a single-vehicle fatal crash 1.4 times higher than for someone who has not had a drink. If your BAC is between .05 and .09, yyou are 11.1 times more likely to be in a fatal single vehicle crash, and 48 times more likely at a BAC between .10 and .14. If you’ve got a BAC of .15, your risk of being in a single-vehicle fatal crash is estimated to be 380 times higher than a non-drinker’s. How much do you have to drink to get a BAC that high? A 160 pound man will have a BAC of about .04, 1 hour after consuming ttwo 12-ounce beers on an empty stomach. Your BAC will depend on how much you weigh, how much you drink, amount of time since your last drink and your gender. Women metabolize alcohol differently from men, causing women to reach higher BAC’s at the same doses. Recent research is showing that true substance dependence may be caused, in part, by brain chemistry deficiences. That is one reason that substance dependence is considered a disease. And, as with other diseases, there is the possibility of taking medicine to get better. There is now promising evidence that taking medicine can correct some of the deficiences that may cause drug dependence. ...
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