THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of north America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA is borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico.
Mountain rangres cross the country from north to south and don’t protect it from the north and warm ear ffrom the south. The USA has a continental climate.
3.Riches of the USA:
Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals from solid Base from development of America industry.
The USA is divided into free arias: Eastern area a highland, central area a plain and Western area which is Mountains and includes the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huren, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario, Erie. There are connected bby channels cut by rapids one of them the Niagara Falls.
The Mississippi together with the Missouri is the longest river in the world. The rivers of the west are unsuitable for navigation. The largest of them are Colombia aand Colorado rivers.
PART 2 National Economy.
The USA is a hardly developed capitalistic country. Heavy industry prevails in the USA, including such branches as the mining , metallurgical, engineering out chemical industries. Being well developed light industry includes, textile, leather and footwear industries. The food industry is also well developed.
As agriculture both animal husbeudry and arally farming are prominent in the economy of the USA.
1. The Commonwealth of Australia is a self governing federal state. It is situated in the south-west of the Pacific ocean, occupying the continent of Australia and a great number of islands of which Tasmania is the most important. Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian and the Pacific Oceans.
2. The country consists of 6 ((six) states and 2 (two) territories. 16 million people live in Australia. The capital is Canberra. The official language is English.
3. Australia has a Parliament has two chambers, the house of Representatives and the Senate. the government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister.
4. Australia is not only far from the rest of the world, it has a bad climate, too. The climate is better in the east and south-east, where most big cities have grown-up. But the nnorthern coast has too much rain, and the western coast is too dry.
5. The highest part of Australia, and almost all the mountains are near the coast. The whole central part of the country is dry; it never rains, there are no large rivers and no water there. So there is no very rich plant life in Australia, except in the east and south-east.
6. Australia is an important producer and exporter of primary products: wool, meat, sugar, fruit, black, coal, iron, copper, lead, gold and so on.
7. Most of the factories are situated near big cities. There are 5 (five) big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and bris bane. These cities are also the country’s main ports.
8. Canberra was specially planned as a capital. It is a quiet city. All the government buildings are situated there. There no industrial plants in the city. About 300000 people live in Canberra.
9. Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. It was founded in 1788. Sydney is a big industrial centre. About 3 million people now live in the city.
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island is situated on the British Isles not far from Europe. IIt consists of the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of Ireland and a great number of small islands. Such as: the Orkney, the Hebrides, the Isle of White and many others.
2. If you look at the map of Europe you will see that Great Britain is not large. It takes 6 hours to travel in a fast train, from London, the capital of England, to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. And the June from London to Plymouth takes a little over 4 hours by train.
3. There are 4 part of Great Britain England, the capital is London, Scotland the capital is Edinburg, Wales the capital is Cardiff and Northern Island the capital is Belfast. Great Britain lies not far from continent. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea and England Channel. The channel in it’s narrowest part The Strate of Dover is only 32 kilometres.
4. Great Britain has a very good geographical position, as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the World.
The sea connects Britain with most European countries such as: Belgium,
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Russia and some other countries. The main sea route from Europe to America aalso passed through the channel.
5. British climate is mild and damp. It often rains frogs are quitrequent especially in the West and south-west. The Gulf Stream a warm ocean current warms to seas around the British coast moderating the climate, giving it cold Summers mild winters. The temperature in winter seldom falls below zero and the field and meadow are green all year round.
Russia occupy a large territory. It stretch almost 10 000 (ten thousand) kilometres from east to west and nearly 5 000 (five thousand) kilometres from north to south. It’s population is 150 000 000 (one hundred and fifty) million people.
From spring till autumn the sun never sets over Russia: in Kaliningrad people see it sitting in the Baltic, while in Kamchatka it rises out of the Pacific Ocean at the some time. People in our country see the New Year in eleven times in one night.
If you begin to travel in the Far East by air and fly 8 000 (eight thousand)kilometres towards the west, you will land in Moscow on the same hour same day that you left the Far East.
It is a wonderful sight you see our country from the plane. One can hardly imagine
a country more interesting to travellers than Russia.
Siberia covers millions of square kilometres. You fly over mountain, endless forests, large and small rivers, railways, motorways. You leave behind the lights of young and small towns, plants and factories. Siberia is a region of untold riches.
Father West are the Ural Mountains the border between Asia and Europe. The Urals are riche in different minerals.
The country’s European part covers the territory from Urals to the Baltic Sea. The largest cities of the RRussia are situated between the Black Sea in the south and the Black Sea in the north. Such an our country from East to West. There is no over countries in which the climate differs so much from one part to another. When it is still winter in the northern regions of our country the first warm days arrive in the south. In the central regions show storms and cold are still in power, while in the south people begin tto think of spring crops. In the same season nature looks different in different parts of our country.
Russia is rich in oil, coal, iron, gold, silver and other minerals.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAN.
The English are great lovers of sport; and they aare neither playing nor watching games, they like to talk about them. However, there is important thing about sport in Britain which we must know. Today, an big sports is professional and famous players can make a lot of money.
et’s take Football for example. It is the most popular team game in Britain. It is played in most of the schools, and there are thousands of amateur teams for young man in all parts of the country. But for most of the public, football is a professionals games which is watched on Saturday afternoons at the stadium.
Professional football is big business. Every large town has one or more professional clubs.
Rugby football is played with an oval ball which may be ccarried. The players in the other team try to stop the man running with the ball by throwing him to the ground. There are fifteen players in each team.
Sports competition get big crowds in Great Britain. All people in Great Britain are fond of sport and Englishman know is they train hard Sport will make them strong and healthy.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He is always finding out more about the world aaround him. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. The more we know the more interested we are in the world around. Each pupil ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is so important in our life and for the good of society. The activities of the school day afford different opportunities for the pupils to participate in some useful work. They give opportunities to develop good work habits and writing compositions gives us opportunities to develop speaking, reading and writing skills.
I am interested in Mathematics , I tried my best to be good at them. I think that chemistry is hard. I believe my efforts in my further studies will be successful. All kinds of activities the pupils participate in are valuable to them.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN.
The educational system of GB is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. The department of education and science is responsible for national educational policy, but it doesn’t employ teacher or prescribe curricular or text books. Each school has it’s own board of governers cconsisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. Such as religious instruction. Schooling for children is compulsory from 5 to 16, though some provision is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to prepare for higher education. The state school system is usually divided into 2 stages (secondary and primary). The majority of primary schools are mixed. They are subdivided into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according to their abilities. Under the pressure of progressive parents and teachers the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country. There are some types of schools in GB Grammar schools provided an academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They give pupils a high level of academic education which can lead to the university. Technical Schools offer a general education with a technical bias and serve those pupils who are more mechanically minded. The curricular iincludes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser attainment. The curricular includes more practical subjects. The comprehensive schools brings about a general improvement in the system of secondary education.
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post school education is organized flexible, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vocational education and to continue studying through out life.
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn’t run any schools, if doesn’t employ teachers, or prescribe curricular or textbooks. All schools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. That is religious instruction. Children receive pre-school education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant’s classes in primary schools. Most pupils receive free education finenst from public funds and the small proportions attend
schools wholly independent. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.
Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 – 7), and junior schools (ages 7 – 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher except ffor PT and music. The work is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extend over four years. Children have set pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to sseat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehensive schools began to appear after WWorld War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools. By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3. The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certificate of education (the GCE) exam aand certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).
andidates set for 0 level papers at 15 – 16 years away. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of average abilities of their age.
EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.
An educated person is one who knows a llot about many things. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupils ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to acquire some scientific knowledge.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities.
There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialised, politechnical, musical art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.
MY FAVORITE PAINTER
One of my favourite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch master, one of the supreme geneses in the history of art. To this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound witness of the progress of the soul in it’s earthly pilgrimage towards the realisation of higher destiny. TThe son of the prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting. His rapid success promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631. In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best of them are „Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp“ and „The night watch“. In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several financial troubles. At that period he painted „The Polish Rider“, which is an allegory of the man’s earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant painted his famous „Return of the Prological son“, which stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the self to the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted „Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir“, „The Saint Family“. Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest aartist of the world.
MY FUTURE PROFESSION
What I would like to become? This question puzzles me greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly all the professions are very important in life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or works, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest are offered in the sphere of the services transport,
communications and many others. I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I like this profession because it very interest.
Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and rread newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Lot’s radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers uses in different ways, but basically they are read.
There is a lot of advertisement on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.
But it is hardly ffair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programs. <
There are more then six TV channels and lot’s of radio stations and newspapers now in the Russian Federation.
Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefers only to sleep in their leisure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great amount of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be reading, a various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and others. If we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many peoples thing that pupils and students have too much leisure ,but in my opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or seven lessons a day aand go to school live or six day a week. Even during the holiday we learn our lessons after school. And we just no time to go some-there. Oldest of us are working after school or institutes. I’m not spend my time at school and after I have a free time. The large part of my free time devote to reading. I like to read books about another countries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about history oof our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. I and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball, football or other active games. But my favourite hobby is travelling. Usually I travel in summer and after it is a trip to the south, to the warm sea. thing all peoples must have other occupation besides their basic work, because it extend the boundaries of the familiar world and teach us something new about people and thing.
THE NEWSPAPERS AND ITS READER.
1. Press is often called a mirror of current events. The information we get from newspapers and magazines helps us to know the life at home and in other countries.
The newspapers aim is to inform the readers as fully as possible of the events taking place in Russia an abroad. They try to cover domestic and foreign policy and the public opinion on all topical usenes.
2. My family receives . . I think . is most interesting I prefer it because . . It’s a daily (weekly, monthly) newspaper (magazine).
3. If you are a regular reader of the press, you can got a lot of information.
RADIO AND TELEVISION.
Of all the discoveries ever made bby man, radio or wireless, is one of the most wonderful. By means of wireless, you can speak to a man on the other side of the world. Seated conformably in your own home, you can hear music or talks, broadcast thousand of miles away from your- talks on national and international affairs, on science, history and other educational subject.
I listen to the wireless almost every evening, mine is are eight-valve set an arial which gives splendid results. I t has medium, long and short wave-lengths and it quit simple to manipulate. All I have to do it’s to tune into the station I require.
I use my set a good deal for keeping up my foreign languages.
THE PROBLEMS OF TEEN-AGES.
There are many young people in our country. Each of them has one’s own view point on their life and their future. There are many problems which are common for all young people. For Example: how to spend their free time, what to do after school, choosing a profession, how to deal with girl and boy-friends and so on.
The problem number one of most of the young people is the problem of fathers and sons. All young people want to be iindependent, they want their parents to listen to their opinion, not to interfere in their private life. Some parents neglect their children, because they cant find a common language with each other.
Many problems were hushed up, but now we can speak openly about them. I think that the most difficult and serious problem of modern teen-ages is drug-habit. Some young man use drugs, because they think that will be cool guys. But they don’t understand, that it’s wrong. Some of them can’t stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. And they commit different serious, because they need some money to buy drugs. There are also many other problems: alcoholism, smoking and so on. There are many youth organisations in our country, which unite young men on different principles. Members of every organisation has ones own world out looks. Each of them has their own moral qualities. There are some informal organisations, for example: skinheads, hippies, panks and so on. Now there exists the problem of misunderstanding between different youth groups.
We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different night clubs. Other
young people spend their free time in the streets.
As for me, I spend my free time at home or in the night clubs. I also have some problems with my parents. But every time then I have them I try to solve them without quarrel.
Now we are young people and we are the future of our country. Teen-agers play an important role in the modern society. Grown ups must remember that we are the future of our country and iin present moment our character is formed and that’s why our parents must not assert pressure on us.
PROBLEMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE.
People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernitious disease but it hits the youth the hardest. It’s name is unemployment. The present age of unemployed youth in the total number of the jobless is high. In many developing countries the situation is more serious. Many young people to commit suicide. Unless the economic situation in tthe world changes, youth unemployment will mount. This productions refer to all categories of workers-with high and low skills in town and country. For all there possible distinctions, these young people over outside the production structure of society. The are ddeprived the possibility of creating there are „surplus“ from time to time some may get a hit of luck, but the lot of the majority is to feel their unless to lose their ideals and become disillusioned. Unemployment greatly intencilicselle tendency among the youth towards, drug education , frustration and crime. This is a time bomb and is a heavy accusation of any social economic system.
Music – it art, reflecting validity in sound art images, one of the forms of public ideology. Having by powerful force direct emotional effect, music during of all history of man-kind plays a huge social, cultural and educational role.
Leading composers are connected to progressive public movements, life, interests and aspirations people. Each nations differs bby peculiar national features. Folk music, being improved by creative efforts of many generations of the people, reaches a high degree of art maturity. On the basis of riches of national music professional musical creativity of composers is developed. Rejection of music from advanced ideas epoch of national culture, national roots of art leads to it’s to decline and degeneration.
Idea emotional contents of music is passed through sound art images, implemented in musical sounds. The basis of music is the ttune. According to the way of performance music is divided into 2 main branches: instrumental and vocal.
There are a great number of different styles of music. Such as: Jazz, Pop, Rock, Classic; and new musical directions. One of new music directions is Rave. It includes: Hard Core, Jungle, Break Beat, Trance, Gabber and many other. I like to listen Jungle and Hard Core.
As for me I like these styles because they are very rhythmic and dancing. The beginning of techno music was put very known singer Freddie Mercury was the first to compose music in the style techno. In those years very few people evaluated new style of music. But with the years a new style has grown up to such global sizes. Now this music is listened to by large part of youth. I think it’s very good that such musical direction as raiv has appeared. Because in Rave there are a lot of musical directions. Young people that are fond of music can easily choose just that style which appeals to them.
When Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge university, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he couldn’t imagine the situation we find ourselves in today. NNearly everything we do in the world is helped, or even controlled by computers, the complicated descendants of his simple machine. Computers are used more and more often in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better memories and they can store much information. No man alive can do 500000 sums in one second, but a computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They can predict weather, and ever play chess, write poetry or compose music.
The use of computers
Just as television has extended human sight across the barriers of time and distance, so the computers extend the power of the human mind across the existing barriers.
Computers in medicine
Computers are one of great importance in modern hospital. The chief use of computers is the storing and sorting the medical knowledge which has been equired in the last 50 years. No doctor can possible keep up with all discoveries. The only solution of the problem is store medical knowledge in a computer. Today there are medical computer centers were all existing knowledge of symptoms of various diseases and of their ttreatment is stored. Doctors feed data on symptoms in the computer and get the necessary information on correct diagnostics and treatment.
Computers that can be learn
Ordinary computer can remember only the data stored in the hard disk. Now scientists have designed machines, that are capable of learning from experience and remembering what they have learned. Such a machine is capable of recognising objects without human help or control. Of course, they made many mistakes.
There is another similar machine which can look at letter alphabet a simple words and they “say” thought a loudes speaker what it has seen. The machine has as certain learning power.
Computers at the school
Information science with the ideas and message of processing and storing information is of great importance today. That’s why computer technology must be told in secondary school. The new subject “basic information science”, and “computing machine” was intreduste for the siner forms at schools. The pupils teach computers to anlestigate school problems. Contact with the machine increases the interest in learning, makes them more serious about studying new subject. School computers are used not only for studying information science, but also examinations purposes. Young people who finish the school must be trained to operate
300-400 years ago a great deal of the world was undiscovered. But now there seems little more to explore, the wild north was conquered, the jungle was conquered too. And it seems that all the pages of the great book called “The Earth” has been filled in, but exploration still goes on.
In the 15th century people knew only 3 continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about America. The man who was thought to be the discoverer oof America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus.
Knowing that the earth was round he decided to reach India by sailing to the west. It was very difficult for him to organise an expedition as nobody wanted to help him. At last the Spanish government gave him some money. In the 1492 he sailed with 3 small ships in to the Atlantic ocean. They had been sailing for more than 2 months and at last they ssaw land. Columbus was certain that the lands he discovered were part of India and he called these islands “The West Indias”. He made 3 voyagers to America. His last voyage was made in 1502-1504. After that, seriously ill, he rremained in Spain until his death. He died believing that Cuba was part of Asia. Columbus’s voyagers gave Europe first important knowledge of the new world. Many places have been named in his honour. America however was named after another explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
Americus Vespucius (or Amerigo Vespucci, as the name is spelled in Italian) was born in Florence, Italy, in 1454. He was in Spain at the time of Columbus’ first and second voyages. In a letter, written in 1504 and printed in 1505, he claimed to have made four voyages, on the first of which, in 1497, he explored the South American coast. This would make him the first European to land on the American continent, for at that ttime Columbus had only reached the outlying islands. Most scholars reject Vespucius’ version of this voyage. Vespucius perhaps did accompany a Spanish expedition that of Alonzo de Ojeda to South America in 1499, and in 1501 and 1503 he probably went with Portuguese expeditions. Probably he never commanded an expedition himself and, of course, was not the first person to set foot on the continents to which his name is given. Vespucius died in Seville, Spain, in 1512.
The pproblem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.
Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
It is the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organization. It is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is eespecially urgent today. Learning a foreign language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
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