21 anglų topikas
Lithuania is a small plot of land at the Baltic Sea. It is in the
geographical centre of Europe (18 km from Vilnius). Lithuania borders with
Latvia, Byelorussia, Poland and Russia. It’s not a big country. The
territory of Lithuanian Republic is about 65000 square km. The population
is 3,7 millions.
The capital of Lithuania is Vilnius.
The official language of the state is Lithuanian. Lithuanian flag consists
of gold, green and red ribbons. State emblem — white Vytis in the red
The biggest town in Lithuania is VVilnius, then goes Kaunas, very beautiful
town on the place where the river Neris flows into the Nemunas. Klaipeda,
Panevezhys, Shiauliai and other big cities too.
For the first time Lithuania was mentioned in 1009 in Quedlinburg annals.
As a state it was emerged in the early 13th century and Mindaugas became
the Grand Duke of Lithuania about 1240. At the end of 14th and the
beginning of 15th century Lithuania became one of the most powerful states
in the Europe. Lithuania was christened in 14th century, uuntil that time it
was pagan. Lithuanian people had to fight a lot for their freedom. The
latest occupation ended only in 1990, when on March 11 Lithuania proclaimed
its restoration of statehood.
There are two big Universities in Lithuania in Vilnius and in Kaunas.
University in Vilnius is very old: it was established in 1579, and another
University, which received the name of the Vytautas the Great, was founded
Holidays in Lithuania
Every nation and every country have its traditions, customs and holidays.
Lithuanians are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It
has been the law for about centuries not to work on Sunday. On that day
people went to the church, spend their time in the family circle, or went
visiting their relatives. Holidays in our country are specially, rich and
are different in Zhemaitija, Aukshtaitija and Dzookija.
Christmas is a Lithuanian national holiday. On the eve of Christmas people
has a family supper, they don’t meat, only fish, fruits and berries.
Everybody is waiting for Christ to be born.
Some ppeople enjoy themselves on the new year’s day. On the eve of New Year
they have a party at home, or go the restaurants, visit their friends. The
New Year tree is decorated for the Christmas or New Year. The day of
Lithuanian’s independence is on the 16 of February. Since 1928 Lithuanian’s
people marks this day every year by paying tribute to those who gave their
lives for the people’s happiness. For many years after World War the second
this holiday was forbidden. Since 1989 iit again becomes the national wide
holiday in your country. It’s a non-working day. The 11 of March is also a
very important day for your country.
Mother’s Day is celebrated on the 1st Sunday of May. The member of family
honour mother giving flowers, presents to her on that day.
The 1st of November is day of commemorating the dead usually on All Saints
Day. People lay flowers on dear people and honour their memory by observing
a minute’s silence.
In spring we celebrate the Easter Day. The tradition of Easter Day is to
colour eggs for Easter table.
There are some other holidays in Lithuania, but I tried to discuss the most
London is one of the biggest and oldest cities in the world. This town is
about 2000 years old. It’s population with suburbs about 10,000,000. The
town is on the river Thames. There are many places of interest in London,
so it attracts many tourists.
The main part of London is city. It’s the places where London started. Now
it’s business centre. Few people can afford living in this part of the town
— it’s very expensive, so most people come there to do their job and leave
this region in the evening.
Westminster — it’s the central part of the town. Houses of Parliament,
Westminster AAbbey, National Galleries are situated there. There are many
government offices. In one tower of House of Parliament is Big Ben — the
main clock of Great Britain. Just across the street is Westminster Abbey —
main church of England. New monarch is crowned there, wedding ceremonies of
the Royal family take place there. It is also famous for its poets’ corner
— many famous people are buried there.
Not far you can see Trafalgar square with Admiral Nelson’s statue. Under
his leadership English fleet defeated united Spanish and French forces.
Another interesting place is Buckingham Palace. If the Queen is in, you can
watch changing guards.
West end is the residential part. It’s the richest part of London. Not far
from there Hyde Park is situated with famous speakers corner.
East part is the poorest part of London. It is industrial region, so air is
polluted, a lot of slums are there.
The tower of London is famous for tower and tower bridge. Tower is museum
now, but it used to be a fortress, state prison, the mint, treasury. The
tower of the bridge in middle ages was used like place of execution.
There is one more place of interest — British Museum.
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuanian Republic. It’s the largest city in our
country and iit is political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre
too. The central bodies of the republic power — parliament, called the
Seimas, Government, various ministries, TV and Radio stations, editorial
offices of republic newspapers, theatres, museums are located in Vilnius.
The first documentary reference to Vilnius dates back to 1323, when the
Great Duke Gediminas proclaimed Vilnius the capital of Lithuanian state and
invited foreign artists, scientists, builders to come live and work here.
Vilnius has got a very beautiful Old Town, which reminds us the history of
our native country.
In the centre of the Old Town, on the Castle hill, stands the Gediminas
Tower, a part of an old castle built 6 centuries ago. There is a square in
slope of the Castle Hill. It’s called the Cathedral square, because there
is a cathedral in the centre of it. This cathedral, reconstructed in the
end of the 18th century by the famous Lithuanian architect Stuoka-
Gucevichius, is the most important catholic church in Lithuania.
Vilnius is a mixture of the main architectural styles: Baroque, Classicism,
Renaissance and Gothic. The church of St. Anna is considered to be a Gothic
masterpiece, the Gediminas castle is a representative of Gothic style too.
Well-known representative of Baroque is the church of St. Peter and Paul.
The Italian sculptors worked on the
masterpieces of art of this church.
There are thousands of sculptures in it. Classicism dominates in some
Cathedral, University buildings. Vilnius University is very old, it was
established in 1579.
There are many new districts built in the latest 30 years: Lazdynai,
Baltupiai (shame of Vilnius), Karolinishkes, Fabijonishkes, Justinishkes. I
don’t admire such „modern“ houses of blocks, factories, standing in the
centre of the city.
Despite this, I don’t want to criticise Vilnius more. It’s my native town
and I couldn’t live in any other town.
The cities of Great BBritain
Great Britain is abundantly populated, but most part of Great Britain
people lives in cities. It’s about 80 percents. There are many old and
beautiful cities. The biggest city is London. In north of London there is a
middle size city Cambridge. Cambridge is famous for its colleges. The first
college Peterhouse was built in 1284. There are 22 colleges in Cambridge
now. Its staff consists of teachers and students. Many great men have
studied at Cambridge, among them Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Tennyson, Darwin.
If we go tto north – west from Cambridge we’ll drive up Birmingham. It is
the second city after London. Birmingham is one of the biggest economic
city in Great Britain. There are many architecture monuments in Birmingham.
In the North of Birmingham we can find MManchester. It is the second biggest
city in Lancashire after Liverpool. It is the industrial capital of the
North of England. Manchester is the fifth largest port in Great Britain
although it is 56 km away from the sea. It is connected with the sea by the
Manchester Ship Canal. Its population is about 700.000 people. Manchester
is the twin city of Sank – Petersburg. Liverpool is the West of Manchester.
Liverpool is the fourth city in Great Britain. It is the second port after
London by the size and importance. A famous group „The Beatles“ was born
here in the 1960. Liverpool is famous for its cheese too. The next city is
in the north of Liverpool. It is the old capital of Scotland – Edinburgh.
It is one oof the most beautiful cities in Europe. It is situated on the
seven hills and goes down those hill to the bay firth of forth. The city is
well planed with beautiful old houses. The last city is Glasgow. It is in
the centre of Scotland. Near the river Clyde. Glasgow is a big industrial
city of Great Britain. It produces one third all Great Britain production.
I think that all cities of Great Britain are beautiful and great.
My Famous writer (Charles Dickens)
Ch. Dickens is ffamous English novelist of the 19th century. Ch. Dickens was
born in the 1812 in Portsmouth, a town in the South of England.
In 1821 his family went to London. Dickens’s father was a very clever man,
but he was very poor, so the life of the family was very hard. Charles had
to go to work when he was ten. For two years he worked at a small factory
in London. Later he worked as a clerk in a lawyer’s office. He spent a lot
of time reading and educating himself. In a few years he become a newspaper
reporter. Dickens published his first book in 1836. It was a collection of
sketches of London life. This was followed by his „Pickwick Papers“ which
made him famous. It is one of funniest books in the English language.
After „Pickwick Paper“ he wrote „Oliver Twist“. In „Nicholas Nickleby“ his
next book, he showed an English school where the boys were starved, beaten
and terrified by their schoolmaster.
Then his novels „Dombey and son“, „David Copperfield“, „Hard Times“,
„Little Dorrit“ and many others appeared one after another. London with its
contrasts: the world of rich people and powerly. He truthfully described
what he had learned in his hard childhood and youth.
Dickens’s style of writing was journalistic and most appropriate for the
wide range of readers.
The works of Charles Dickens show the abounded faith of the writer in the
final victory of truth and goodness over the dark forces of evil.
Dickens is one of my famous English writers, I highly value his novels for
their realism, their humour, their love and sympathy for ordinary people.
Ch. Dickens died in 1870 and was buried in the Poets Corner of Westminster
The Seasons of the year
There are four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn, and
winter. Every season is beautiful and pleasant in its own way.
Spring is a wonderful season. Spring comes and nature awakens from its
winter sleep. The days become longer and nights shorter. The ground is
covered with fresh green grass and the first spring flowers .The trees are
covered with new leaves and blossoms. The air is fresh and sun shines
brightly. Spring’s months are March, April and May.
Summer months are June, July and August. The weather is usually fine in
summer. It is much warmer than in spring. The trees are green and the
gardens are full of flowers. Everybody enjoys summer. A lot of people have
their holidays in summer. They can go swimming and boating , they can lie
in the sun and get sunburnt , they can gather berries and mushrooms.
Autumn months are September, October and November. The days become shorter
and the nights become longer. The weather often changes, and it gets colder
and colder. The sky is often grey and cloudy, often rains. Autumn is
harvesting time, the time when grain, fruit and vegetables become ripe.
Winter months are December, January and February. Sometimes it is very cold
(30 degrees or more below zero). It often snows. Winter is a good time for
sport. Little children are fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen ,
older ones go in for skating and skiing.
History: The first theatres were in ancient Greek. People sat in the open
air on a hillside, while below actors and dancers performed on a space
called orchestra. Plays were tragedies and comedies. In the middle ages
people performed miracle and mystery plays- stories from the Bible or
Some of the first indoor theatres were built in England in the 16th
century. Groups of actors performed the plays of Shakespeare and others.
Actors wore clothes of their days. Boys took women parts, as women were not
allowed to act. Since the 18th century plays became closer to real life.
The plots are usually about lives of ordinary people.
My first visit: I can’t say
I like the theatre very much and I often visit
it. But sometimes I go to visit the Opera House. It’s my favourite theatre.
It was open in 1974. Unfortunately, I wasn’t able to see the 1st Opera
performed there, because I was born only in 1976. To the best of my memory,
the 1st ballet I saw was „Spragtukas“ by Chaykovskij. I was about 7 years
old that time. That evening was very impressing. For the first time I saw
such a wonderful interior and sso many people, dressed festively. We bought
tickets to the boxes and I had a very good seat (the best you can get in
the boxes, of course). I could see almost everything around me. For the
first time I saw such a big audience and such a big nice area. Everything
was strange for me. I was too little to understand anything. I even didn’t
know who played the main roles, what was the cast of the ballet. But I
really remember, that the cast hhad to appear on the stage again and they
got many flowers. The evening I spent in the Opera House made a great
impression on me.
Some years later I finally understood it was a fairy-tale, not the real
My last visit: I like ttheatre very much. My favourite theatre — the Opera
House. I often look through the theatre advertisements in order not to miss
my favourite plays. Last month I visited the Opera House. I went to see the
opera „Carmen“ by Gorges Biset. I was unlucky. All tickets to the stall
were sold, so I only got tickets to the boxes. By the entrance door I met
my friends. We went to the cloakroom dressed off, bought the programs and
climbed up to the boxes. The lights went off. The overture was being played
while the curtains were rising. The scenery wasn’t very particular. But the
singers were great. There were a lot of applause after the play. The cat
had to appear on the stage 3 or 4 times.
Great Britain is on the British Islands. It’s surrounded by the Atlantic
Ocean, the North Sea and the English Channel. The climate is influenced by
the surrounding waters, particularly by the Gulf stream. That’s why the
climate is rather mild. Summers are not very hat and winters are not very
cold. There is no snow in the greatest part of GB.
The landscape is nice. There are no high mountains in GB, but they have
some high hills in Scotland, which they call Highlands. There are aa lot of
small lakes in Scotland, which are called lochs. The biggest river is the
GB is constitution monarchy. It has a monarch, but he doesn’t rule, he just
reigns, controlled by the parliament. The King or the Queen is the symbol